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CONTENTS

CHAPTER  – I

INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………         1-10

CHAPTER  - II

VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE …………………   11-30

CHAPTER  - III

PREVENTIVE MEASURES…………………………………………..…    31-39

CHAPTER  - IV

INTEGRATION OF MITIGATION MEASURES …………………..      40-44
WITH THE DEVELOPMENTAL PLAN
            

CHAPTER  - V

PREPAREDNESS MEASURES …………………………………………   45-64

CHAPTER  – VI

RESPONSE ………………..………………………………….…………… 65-105

Identifying Response Level …………………………………………………          

L0 Activities ………………………………………………………                           

L2 Activities …………………                                                                                   

Quick Response ……………………………………….                                            

Relief Coodination ..…………………………………………                                  

Recovery …………………………………………………………                            

L3 Response …………………………………………………………………          

Resources …………………………………………………………………               

CHAPTER  –VII

PARTNERSHIP WITH OTHER STAKEHOLDERS ………………    106-108


 

CHAPTER  – VIII

FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS ……………………………………… 109-113

CHAPTER  - IX

EARTHQUAKE DISASTER SPECIFIC ACTION PLAN …………   115-159

CHAPTER  – X

REVIEW AND UPDATION OF PLAN ……………………………       161-162

CHAPTER – XI

COORDINATION AND IMPLEMENTATION ……………………… 163-170


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANNEXURES

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                    

 


 

Chapter - i

GENERAL

1.0     INTRODUCTION

A disaster is an, event, located in time and space, that produces the conditions whereby the continuity of the structure and processes of social units become problematic.” An event, natural or man-made, sudden or progressive, which impacts with such severity that, the affected community has to respond by taking exceptional measures, may termed as disaster. Loss of life & Injury, Damage to and destruction of property, Damage to and destruction of subsistence and cash crops, Disruption of lifestyle, Loss of livelihood, Disruption of essential services., Damage to national infrastructure and disruption to governmental systems, and  National economic loss, Sociological and psychological after-effects, are the resultants of the disasters.

Generally, drought is not considered as a crisis of urgent nature but considered as a management issue.  Drought is a natural, recurring climatic feature which stems from the lack of rainfall over an extended period of time (i.e. a season or several years resulting in severe shortage of water resources).  It occurs almost in all climatic regions of the world. Drought is a normal phenomenon in arid zone areas, a common phenomenon in semi- arid zone areas and a rare to very rare phenomenon in dry humid and humid areas. It is a natural disaster, which can be anticipated and also expected on the basis of rainfall pattern, temperature etc.  In a large country like India having many agro-climatic zones, though drought cannot be prevented totally, its impact on the community at large can be minimized.

Drought connotes a situation of water shortage for human, cattle and agriculture consumption resulting in economic losses, primarily in agriculture sector. Drought is classified as Meteorological, Hydrological and Agricultural Unlike the Hydrological and Agricultural droughts, the Meteorological Drought, which connotes specific rainfall reduction below -19% of normal rainfall, may not necessarily have any serious impact if the departure from normal is not significant and the rainfall is sufficient enough to sustain the soil moisture.

In India, drought essentially occurs due to failure of south-west monsoon (June – September). Areas affected by drought needs to wait till   the next Monsoon , as more than 73% of annual rainfall in the country is received during the SW Monsoon season.

 The mechanism for anticipating and managing droughts necessarily differs from similar arrangements concerning other disasters, natural calamities (like earthquakes, floods, cloudbursts, tsunami etc) or man-made disasters, for the following reasons:

  Drought; which is a slow developing natural disaster, has grave socio-economic impacts. Incidence of drought or deficit seasonal  annual  rainfall  is  part  of  the  fluctuating  climatic regime  globally  and  particularly  in  monsoon  season  as  the bulk of  the annual  rainfall occurs  in  the  span of  the summer monsoon season varying from 2 to 4 months.  

 India  has  witnessed  drought  in  its  rainy  season  from  time immemorial and from the ancient period, policy was always in place  to  mitigate  the  adverse  impacts  of  drought  on availability of  food.   Even  the  local community and  individual family  mechanisms  had  traditionally  evolved  to  support  a community or a family from the misery of a drought situation. Drought deffers from other disasters due following reasons.

(i) Slow onset and prolonged course of droughts as against the other disasters, which have rapid onset, and a limited duration; and

(ii) Early warning indicators in case of droughts are necessarily ambiguous because they may or may not culminate in a full-blown drought.

The Government of India in 2002 decided to retain the issue of management of drought with the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation when it was decided to transfer the management of all other type of natural and man-made disasters with the Ministry of Home Affairs. Unlike other natural disasters its onset is slow but has a very serious impact on the economy due to its intensity and longer duration over a period of time.

Disasters are either natural, such as floods, droughts, cyclones and earthquakes, or human-made such as riots, conflicts and others like fire, epidemic, industrial accidents and environmental fallouts. Globally, natural disasters account for nearly 80% of all disaster affected people. According to the insurance company estimates, natural disasters represent 85% of insured catastrophe losses. If one adds the losses in countries like India, where most of the property of the people, especially in the rural areas is uninsured, the losses are astronomical. To manage these disasters at gross root level, it is of paramount importance to have a well documented action plan.

1.1.      PROFILE OF THE UTTAR PRADESH

Geography

Uttar Pradesh is bounded by Nepal on the North, Himachal Pradesh on the north- west, Haryana on the west, Rajasthan on the south west, Madhya Pradesh on the south and south- west and Bihar on the east.

Situated between 23o 52’N and 31o 28 N latitudes and 77o 3’ and 84o 39’E longitudes, this is the fourth largest state in the country. The details given here are before the separation.

Uttar Pradesh can be divided into three distinct hypsographical regions :

1.      The Himalayan region in the North

2.      The Gangetic plain in the centre

3.      The Vindyan hills and plateau in the south

After separation of Uttarakhand from U.P. very nominal area of hills occurs in     U.P. but Tarai and Bhanwar belt exist in U.P.

The larger Gangetic Plain in the north it includes the Ganga-Yamuna Doab; the Ghaghra plains; the Ganga plains and the Terai. It has highly fertile alluvial soils and flat topography - (slope 2 km) - broken by numerous ponds, lakes and rivers.

The smaller Vindhyan Hills and plateau region in the south. It is characterised by hard rock area with varied topography of hills, plains, valleys and plateau having limited availability of water.

                                                                       

(FIGURE-1)

Climate

The climate of Uttar Pradesh is predominantly subtropical, but weather conditions change significantly with location and season.

Temperature: Depending on the elevation, the average temperatures vary from 12.5–17.5°C (54.5–63.5°F) in January to 27.5–32.5°C (81.5–90.5°F) in May and June. The highest temperature recorded in the State was 49.9°C (121.8°F) at Gonda on May 8, 1958.

Rainfall: Rainfall in the State ranges from 1,000–2,000 mm (40–80 inches) in the east to 600–1,000 mm (24–40 inches) in the west. About 90 percent of the rainfall occurs during the southwest monsoon, lasting from about June to September. With most of the rainfall concentrated during this four-month period, droughts are a recurring problem and cause heavy damage to crops, life, and property. A drought is the Periodic failure of monsoons conditions and crop failure due to deficiency of soil moisture.

Demographic and Socioeconomic Profile

Most of the state of Uttar Pradesh lies in the Gangetic Plain and has a population of 166,052,859 according to 2001 census and  has an area of 2,40,928 sq. km. There are 71 districts, 813 blocks and 107452 villages. The State has population density of 689.

Almost all social indicators of the state show that the state stands on 13th or 14th position among the sixteen major States. Bihar and in some cases Orissa, are the only two states which lag behind U.P. in terms of social development indicators like medical facilities, teacher-pupil ratio in primary schools, birth rate, death rate, infant mortality rate, literacy, per capita income, electrification of villages, per capita power consumption etc. Uttar Pradesh is often seen as a case study of development in a region of India that currently lag behind other parts of the country in terms of a number of important aspects of well being and social progress. The region consists of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. There are important differences between these four states. But the cause of social backwardness in these four different States, never the less, appear to have much in common and recent comparative research have pointed to many similarities in the social, cultural and even political makeup of these states which have contributed to their backwardness.


 

Demographic and Socio-economic profile of U. P.  as compared to India

S. No.

Item

Uttar Pradesh

India

1

Total population (Census 2001) (in million)

166.20

1028.61

2

Decadal Growth (Census 2001) (%)

25.5

21.54

3

Crude Birth Rate (SRS 2007)

29.5

23.1

4

Crude Death Rate (SRS 2007)

8.5

7.4

5

Total Fertility Rate (NFHS-III)

3.8

2.7

6

Infant Mortality Rate (SRS 2007)

69

55

7

Maternal Mortality Ratio (SRS 2001 - 2003)

517

301

8

Sex Ratio (Census 2001)

898

933

9

Population below Poverty line (%)

31.15

26.10

10

Schedule Caste population (in million)

35.15

166.64

11

Schedule Tribe population (in million)

0.11

84.33

12

Female Literacy Rate (Census 2001) (%)

42.2

53.7

13

Males

565369

 

14

Females

632552

 

15

Density Of Population (Persons/ Square Km)

689

 

16

Urban Population %

20.78

 

17

Literacy Rate (Census 2001) In %

57.36

 

18

Male Literacy In %

68.8

 

19

Male Literate In Numbers

48901413

 

20

Female Literate In Numbers

26817871

 

21

NSDP At Current Prices (2002-2003)* Rs Crores

170424 Rs Crores *(2002-2003)

 

22

Per Capita NSDP (2002-03) At Current Prices Rs

9895 Rs *(2002-2003)

 

         

1.2       Theme (DROUGHT) 

The Disaster Management Plan for the state is proposed to be developed as an integrated plan encompassing all disasters in the multi-response fashion keeping with the international trend. Albeit, a common planning and operational framework is proposed for all the four disasters which would ensure a systematic assessment, communication and management of risk, appropriate for a disaster and identification of response. The tragedy and the lessons learnt from the severe droughts have changed the mindset of the government and the focus of disaster management shifted from “Rescue, Relief and Restoration” to “Planning, Preparedness &Prevention”.

International Status of Drought

Drought is the most subtle. Often, farmers cannot tell there is going to be a drought until it is too late. Unlike flash floods, drought is slow to develop. Unlike earthquakes, with destruction to the exterior environment, drought does its damage underground long before dust storms rage across the plains. Technically, drought is measured by the decrease in the amount of subsoil moisture that causes crops to die or yield less (agricultural drought) or by a drop in the water level in surface reservoirs and below ground aquifers, causing wells to go dry (hydrological drought). Agricultural plus hydrological drought can lead to sociological drought. In this condition, drought affects food and water supplies to the extent that people have to rely on relief donations or are forced to migrate to another area.

Droughts are worldwide, repetitive, and unpredictable. Scientists believe there is a drought somewhere on the earth at any time. Nor are droughts recent developments; analysis of rock cores, glacial ice cores, and tree rings reveal prehistorical and historical droughts, some of which lasted for several decades. Tree rings in California, for example, record a 40-year-drought 300 years ago. The direct cause of drought is a continued decrease in optimal rainfall. But what causes clouds not to form over an area, or the winds to carry rain-bearing clouds elsewhere, is complex. Climate change will alter the location of increased and reduced rainfall, so that some places that have always been well-watered will experience drought.

Some scientists believe that El Niño-La Niña events in the western Pacific Ocean are main drivers in the cause of droughts around the world. El Niño, an eastward flow of warm surface waters, creates a high pressure zone over the equator that results in a change in the high and low pressure zones in other parts of the world. This affects the flow of the jet stream and results in a disturbed rainfall pattern. The La Niña, which usually follows El Niño, is an upwelling of cold deep waters in the western Pacific Ocean. It causes disturbed pressure zones that result in droughts in the Midwest, among other places.

Drought prediction is still in its infancy. Although scientists know that El Niño-La Niña events cause droughts in specific areas, they cannot yet predict when El Niño will occur. Weather satellites can measure subsoil moisture, a good indicator of incipient drought, but other factors also contribute to drought. Lack of rain, is exacerbated by man-made environmental problems, such as cutting down trees for fuel and not allowing the soil to lie fallow, which conserves soil moisture. Overgrazing by animals such as cattle, goats, and sheep also contributes to the denuding of topsoil, which blows away in the wind, a condition known as desertification. Drought then becomes a cycle that feeds on itself: lack of trees reduces the amount of water vapor given off into the atmosphere; lack of topsoil reduces water retention. The result is that local rainfall is reduced, and the rain that does fall runs off and is not absorbed. Of all the water on the earth, less than 3% is fresh water. A lot of water is lost in evaporation, especially in arid climates, not only during rainfall but when it is stored in surface reservoirs. Rainwater or snowmelt that seeps into below-ground permeable rock channels, or aquifers, is pumped into wells in many communities. High-tech pumps have contributed to an increased drain on aquifers; if an aquifer is pumped too quickly, it collapses, and the ground above sinks. To increase water bank supplies, some communities recharge their aquifers by pumping water into them when they are low.

Currently, farm irrigation uses most of the world’s fresh water supply, but as city populations grow, they are expected to become the biggest consumers, and urban conservation measures will become imperative. Some communities already using recycle wastewater for small farms and domestic garden. Drought-causing industrial pollutants that “freeze” the water supply by rendering its toxic. During severe drought, sociologists find that people must adapt, migrate, or die. Death, however, is usually caused by other factors such as war or poverty, where relief food supplies have been hijacked and sold at high prices, or where people in remote villages must walk to the distribution centers. Most people adapt in drought by making the most of their resources, such as building reservoirs or desalination plants or laying pipes connecting to more abundant water supplies. Farmers often invest in high-tech irrigation techniques or alter their crops to grow low-water plants, such as garbanzo beans.

Drought has also been the inspiration for inventions. Most inventions failed or were unreliable, but out of the impetus to make rain grew silver iodide cloud-seeding, which now affects a 10–15% increase in local rainfall in some parts of the world.

National Status

Indian agriculture is heavily dependent on the monsoon as a source of water. In some parts of India, the failure of the monsoons result in water shortages, resulting in below-average crop yields. This is particularly true of major drought-prone regions such as southern and eastern Maharashtra, northern Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. In the past, droughts have periodically led to major Indian famines

History of Drought In India

Chronology

·        650: Famine throughout India

·        1022,1033: Great famines, entire provinces were depopulated

·        1344-1345: Great famine

·        1396-1407: The Durga Devi famine

·        1630-1631: there was a famine in Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

·        1630-1632: Deccan famine in India kills 2 million (Note: There was a corresponding famine in northwestern China, eventually causing the Ming dynasty to collapse in 1644.)

·        1661: famine, when not a drop of rain fell for two years

·        1702-1704: 2 million died of famine in Deccan

·        1770: territory ruled by the British East India Company experienced the first Bengal famine of 1770. An estimated 10 million people died.

·        1783-84 Up to 11 million died in the Chalisa famine in the regions of present-day Uttar Pradesh, Delhi region, Rajputana, eastern Punjab region and Kashmir.

·        1788-92: Another 11 million may have died in the Doji bara famine or Skull famine in Hyderabad State, Southern Maratha country, Gujarat and Marwar.

·        1800-1825: 1 million Indians died of famine.

Great Famine of 1876–78

British Indian Empire (1909), showing the different provinces and native states, including those affected by the Great Famine of 1876–78The Great Famine of 1876–78 (also the Southern India famine of 1876–78 or the Madras famine of 1877) was a famine in India that began in 1876 and affected south and southwestern India (Madras, Mysore, Hyderabad, and Bombay) for a period of two years. In its second year famine also spread north to some regions of the Central Provinces and the United Provinces, and to a small area in the Punjab. The famine ultimately covered an area of 257,000 square miles (670,000 km2) and caused distress to a population totaling 58,500,000.

·        The 1899 famine, in which over 4.5 million died;

·        In 1917/1918 drought was so sever that even the river Jhelam dried.

·        In 1943, India experienced the second Bengal famine of 1943. Over 3 million people died.

·        In 1966, there was a 'near miss' in Bihar. The USA allocated 900,000 tons of grain to fight the famine.

·        A further 'near miss' food crisis occurred due to drought in Maharashtra in 1970-1973.

Drought 2000-2001

During the drought of 2000-2001, a total of eight states have fallen foul of the rain gods. These included Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Chattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tehri Garhwal districts in Uttaranchal. Some states were in their second, or third consecutive year of drought.

In recent years the drought in 2002, 2004, 2006, 2007 have affected many part of the country.

          Drought (deviation of actual rainfall from normal) in different Meteorological sub-divisions (Year-2002)

Meteorological Sub Division

Rainfall
(per cent below normal)

MODERATE DROUGHT
Haryana
Chandigarh
Delhi
Punjab
Coastal Andhra Pradesh
Rayalseema
North Interior Karnataka
South Interior Karnataka
Coastal Karnataka
Tamil Nadu
Kerala
Lakshadweep

-36
-36
-36
-36
-26
-33
-31
-44
-30
-45
-35
-45

SEVERE DROUGHT
West Rajasthan
East Rajasthan


-71
-60

State Status

State of Uttar Pradesh is also included in some of drought described under national status. In recent time drought of 2002, 2004, 2006 and 2007 have caused severe drought condition in some part of the state. The successive deficient rains in 2006 and 2007 have caused calamity condition in the 9 southern districts of state comprising Budelkhand and Vidhyan region.     

1.3       Objectives

The objectives of the Disaster Management Plan are to improve the capacity of the state to mitigate the effects of natural disasters, in the assessment of disaster damage potential and in the establishment of early warning systems and disaster resistant capabilities. To devise appropriate guidelines and strategies for applying existing scientific and technical knowledge;

To foster scientific and engineering endeavors aimed at addressing critical gaps in knowledge.  Ensure that the following components of disaster management are organised to facilitate planning, preparedness, operational coordination and community participation.

Prevention

The elimination or reduction of the incidence or severity of disasters and the mitigation of their effects. Activities under this are as below;

·        To disseminate existing and new technical information.

·        To develop measures for the assessment, prediction, prevention and mitigation of natural disasters through programmes of technical assistance and technology transfer, education and training and to evaluate effectiveness of programmes.

·        To identify the various hazards and hazard prone areas in the State.

·        To conduct risk and vulnerability assessment and to identify vulnerable Locations

·        To analyze capacities of the different institutions of the state.

·        To evolve strategies for preparedness and mitigation so that risk involved invulnerable communities can be reduced.

Response

The combating of emergencies and the provision of immediate rescue and relief services;

·        To evolve Emergency response and recovery mechanism and financial Arrangements

·        To ensure that community is the most important stakeholder in the DM process.

Recovery

The assisting of people and communities affected by disasters to achieve a proper and effective level of functioning. Recovery brings back the community to a better and safer level than the pre-disaster stage. To reform financial planning for disaster management planning and undertake reconstruction as an opportunity to build disaster resilient structures and habitat.


 

Chapter - II

VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT AND RISK ANALYSIS

Risk has defined by the United Nations as a measure of the expected losses due to a hazard event of a particular magnitude occurring in a given area over a specific time period. The level of risk depends upon the nature of the hazard, the vulnerability of the elements which, it affects and the economic value of those elements. As communities grow larger, more established and more complex, experience has shown that the level of risk which they face increases.

Risk Analysis means the identification of undesired events that lead to the materialization of a hazard, the analysis of the mechanisms by which these undesired events could occur and, usually, the estimation of the extent, magnitude, and likelihood of any harmful effects.

2.0       Planning Commission has demarcated the geographical area of India into 15 agro-climatic regions. These are further divided into more homogeneous 72 sub-zones. The 15 agro-climatic zones are:

1.         Western Himalayan Region: J&K, HP, UP, Uttaranchal

2.         Eastern Himalayan Region: Assam Sikkim, W.Bangal & all North-Eastern states

3.         Lower Gangetic Plains Region: W.Bangal

4.         Middle Gangetic Plains Region: UP, Bihar

5.         Upper Gangetic Plains Region: UP

6.         Trans-Gangetic Plains Region: Punjab, Haryana, Delhi & Rajasthan

7.         Eastern Plateau and Hills Region: Maharashtra, UP, Orissa & W.Bangal

8.         Central Plateau and Hills Region: MP, Rajasthan, UP

9.         Western Plateau and Hills Region: Maharashtra, MP & Rajasthan

10.       Southern Plateau and Hills Region: AP, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu

11.       East Coast Plains and Hills Region: Orissa, AP, TN,& Pondicherry

12.       West Coast Plains and Ghat Region : TN, Kerala, Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra

13.       Gujarat Plains and Hills Region: Gujarat

14.       Western Dry Region: Rajasthan

15.       The Islands Region: Adman & Nicobar, Lakshya Deep                     

 

Agro-climatic zones

(Fig-2)

Drought is the major disaster affecting the State of Uttar Pradesh. The State produces about 21 percent of all food grains of the country, and hence is agriculturally an important State. The total sown area is 25.30 million ha out of which, 17.69 million ha. is irrigated area.(66% is irrigated). Of the irrigated area, canals contribute about 25%, tube wells about 67% and ponds, lakes etc. the remaining. Thus one third of the irrigated area and the entire extent of rain fed area in the State is dependant on monsoon rains. The recharge of groundwater through rains accounts about 80 % of total recharge. The monsoon rain accounts 70-80% of the total rainfall in a year in our region. The State of U.P. has been divided into two meteorological sub-divisions, viz. U.P. East, and U.P. West. The recurrence period of highly deficient rainfall in East U.P. has been calculated to be 5 years whereas in West U.P. it is 3 years. (Fig-3).

The annual loss due to drought in the State varies depending on the severity of the drought. In the recent years, the year 2002, & 2004 were severe in terms of drought, with loss to crop, livestock and property assessed at Rs.7540 crores and Rs. 7292 crores respectively. Drought of 2009 is also severe and will give great negative impact in all sectors of the State and country.

Drought situation in Uttar Pradesh in the year 2002 and creation of

 ‘Crop Weather Watch Group’

The monsoon in the state of Uttar Pradesh sets in early June and reaches Lucknow around 15 June in a normal rainfall year. In the year 2002, except for only 2-3 districts in Eastern U.P. and in the parts of foothill zone south of Nepal, nil or scantly rainfall was received in June and July, leading to the declaration of 15 districts as “Drought affected” by the State government on 18 July 2002. This alarming situation led the Dept. of Agriculture (DOA) together from RSAC-UP, information on crop sowing and crop coverage using satellite data on a weekly basis. The Govt. of U.P., also created a committee named as “Crop Weather Watch Group” (CWWG) with the Director General, U.P. Council of Agricultural Research as its Chairman and Director of Agriculture, U.P., Director, RSAC-UP, Head, Agro meteorology Division and Agronomists and Plant Breeders from the three Agricultural Universities of the State as members.

The Objectives of the CWWG are as follows:

·        Assessment of region-wise and crop wise area sown in the state,

·        Assessment of status of cropped received by DOA from its field staff and       corroboration with crop area and status information from remote sensing data.

·        Assessment of status of rainfall and medium range weather forecast received from NCMRWF, India Meteorological Department, (IMD), and

·        Preparation of contingency plan for farmers indicating steps to be taken by them if the rainfall is received in the next week, next fortnight or next month.

·         The contingency plan consisted of advisories on alternate, low moisture  requiring crops and management practices to be adopted by the farmers in different districts/ divisions of the state keeping in view the current and future rainfall condition.

·         The CWWG had its discussion on weekly basis, starting late July to the end of October 2002 and provided information on contingency plan, which were released for farmers through electronic and print media in all parts of the state.

·        Since the information by the CWWG was required on the extent of sown/cropped area on district basis, the image received from NRSC was geo-referenced and intersected with district boundary of U.P. and district-wise statistics were generated at RSAC-UP.

Further, the vegetation vigour as depicted on the NDVI image were grouped into three vegetation classes, viz., very good, good, and low, and one non-vegetation class shown as ‘other’ (bare soils, water bodies etc) . The area under each of these classes was also calculated. Change in the vegetation condition over the last fortnight was also analysed and a qualitative estimation was made as to whether the change was significant in terms of vegetation condition in the district.

2.1       History of Vulnerability of the country to different types of Drought.

(i)        Meteorological drought

This happens when the actual rainfall in an area is significantly less than the climatological mean of that area. The country as a whole may have a normal monsoon, but different meteorological districts and sub-divisions can have below normal rainfall. The rainfall categories for smaller areas are defined by their deviation from a meteorological area’s normal rainfall –

Severity of meteorological drought is categorized based on the percentage departure of rainfall from normal values:

Departure from Normal

Drought Severity

0-20 %

No drought

21-40%

Large

41-60%

Severe

above    60%

Disastrous

(ii)       Hydrological drought

A marked depletion of surface water causing very low stream flow and drying of lakes, rivers and reservoirs. Depletion in the groundwater level.

(iii)      Agricultural drought

Inadequate soil moisture resulting in acute crop stress and fall in agricultural productivity.

(iv) Socio-economic drought

Socio-economic drought occurs when physical water shortages start to affect the health, well-being, and quality of life of the people, or when the drought starts to affect the supply and demand of an economic product. Scarcity of drinking water.

The vulnerability of a particular element of society is defined as the degree of loss which; it would suffer as a result of a specific hazard event. The nature of vulnerability and its assessment vary according to whether the element involved represents people and social structures, physical structures, or economic assets and activities. The vulnerability of an area is determined by the capacity of its social, physical and economic structures to withstand and respond to hazard events.

During a severe drought in 1917/1918, the Jhelum River in Kashmir dried up completely. Out of the 328 million ha geographical area of India, 107 million ha (nearly one-third), spread over administrative districts in several states, is affected by drought. It includes about 39 per cent of cultivable land and about 29 per cent of our population. India has experienced 22 major droughts during the last 131 years. .  In the past,  India has experienced twenty  two  large scale droughts  in 1891, 1896, 1899,  1905,  1911,  1915,  1918,  1920,  1941,  1951,  1965,  1966,  1972,  1974, 1979, 1982, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1999, 2000 and 2002 with increasing frequencies during the periods 1891-1920, 1965-1990 and 1999-2002. The 2002 drought, one of the severest in India, affected 56 per cent of its geographical area, the livelihoods of 300 million people and 150 million cattle in 18 states. The Government of India had to provide relief amounting to about US$ 4 500 million. There is a large variability in the monsoon rainfall on both space  and  time  scales. Consequently  the  Indian  regions  experience drought or flood  in  some  parts  of  the  country  or  the  other  almost  every  year  during  the monsoon period between June-September. Out of 44 (1965-2009) years, Orissa witnessed droughts in 19 years, floods for 17 years and cyclones for 7 years.  Droughts in the Indian region are mainly due to various kinds of failures of   rains from southwest monsoon.

 Also  there  seems  to  be  some  association between  El  Nino  and  La  Nina  events  and  weak  monsoons.  Over   more than hundred years period between 1871-1988, 11 of the 21 drought years were El Nino years.  During  the  90  years  period  between  1901-1990  rainfall  was sufficient  in  all  7  strong  El  Nino  cases.  The  El  Nino  phase  of  the  Southern Oscillations  (ENSO) has direct  impact on drought  in  India which causes weak or enhanced summer monsoon.  

It  was  in  the  19th  century  in  the  British  period,  when  the incidence  of  regional/  all  India  droughts  increased  in which socio–political  conditions might  have  also  contributed,  that the  British  Government,  with  the  recommendations  of  the three Famine Commissions during 1880-1901, put  in place a policy  to  combat  famine  or  scarcity  conditions.  The Government  took  upon  itself  the  responsibility  to  save  lives and reduce starvation deaths by offering gratuitous relief and providing  short  term  employment  on  public works  as  far  as possible  near  the  habitat  of  the  affected  population.

 By  the beginning of the 20th century, Famine Code was in place and efforts were made to undertake major irrigation works as well as  use  rail  transportation  on  large  scale  to move  food  from surplus  areas  to  scarcity  areas.  The   mitigation efforts undertaken by the Government also began to be documented but the approach was mainly relief oriented. This policy also particularly vulnerable or susceptible to damage. The concept of vulnerability implies a measure of risk combined with the level of social and economic ability to cope with the resulting event in order to resist major disruption or loss. Vulnerability is thus the liability of a community to suffer stress, or the consequence of the failure of any protective devices and may be defined as the degree to which a system or part of a system, may react adversely to the occurrence of a hazardous event.       

There were 14 famines in India between 11th and 17th century (Bhatia, 1985). For example, during the 1022-1033 Great famines in India entire provinces were depopulated. Famine in the Deccan and Gujarat killed at least 2 million people in 1630-32. Drought in India has resulted in tens of millions of deaths over the course of the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Indian agriculture is heavily dependent on the climate of India: a favorable southwest summer monsoon is critical in securing water for irrigating Indian crops. In the past, droughts have periodically led to major Indian famines, including the Bengal famine of 1770, the Chalisa famine, the Doji bara famine, the Great Famine of 1876–78; and the Bengal famine of 1943.“The prospect of a devastating famine every few years was inherent in India's ecology "The last near-famines were the Bihar starvation in December 1966 and a drought in Maharashtra in 1970-1973. Green Revolution has since improved yields significantly.

Famines under British Rule

From the earliest endeavors of the British East India Company on the Subcontinent. But especially since 1857 the year of the first major Indian rebellion against British rule the British Raj, as the British governing body was known after 1857, had instituted a widespread series of mercantilist economic rules intended to foster a favorable balance of trade for Britain relative to the Subcontinent as well as other colonies, which had a dramatic impact on the economic milieu within India. Because of these effects and the Raj's role as the supreme governing body within India, contemporary scholars such as Romesh Dutt in 1900, who had himself witnessed the famines first-hand—and present-day scholars such as Amartya Sen agree, that the famines were a product both of uneven rainfall and British economic and administrative policies. These policies had, since 1857, led to the seizure and conversion of local farmland to foreign-owned plantations, restrictions on internal trade, heavy taxation on Indians to support unsuccessful British expeditions in Afghanistan like the Second Anglo-Afghan War, inflationary measures that increased the price of food, and substantial exports of staple crops from India to Britain. (Dutt, 1900 and 1902; Srivastava, 1968; Sen, 1982; Bhatia, 1985.) In the century preceding, the first Bengal famine of 1770 is estimated to have taken nearly one-third of the population. In 1865-66, severe drought struck Orissa and was met by British official inaction. Secretary of State for India Lord Salisbury later regretted,

“I did nothing for two months. Before that time the monsoon had closed the ports of Orissa—help was impossible—and—it is said—a million people died. The Governments of India and Bengal had taken in effect no precautions whatever.… I never could feel that I was free from all blame for the result.” (quoted in Davis 2001:32)

Some British citizens such as William Digby agitated for policy reforms and famine relief, but Lord Lytton, the governing British viceroy in India, opposed such changes in the belief that they would stimulate shirking by Indian workers. Reacting against calls for relief during the 1877-79 famine, Lytton replied, "Let the British public foot the bill for its 'cheap sentiment,' if it wished to save life at a cost that would bankrupt India," substantively ordering "there is to be no interference of any kind on the part of Government with the object of reducing the price of food," and instructing district officers to "discourage relief works in every possible way. Mere distress is not a sufficient reason for opening a relief work." (quoted in Davis 2001:31, 52) The Famine Commission of 1880 observed that each province in British India, including Burma, had a surplus of food grains and the annual surplus amounted to 5.16 million tons (Bhatia, 1970). At that time, annual export of rice and other grains from India was approximately one million tons. At about the same time the British devised the first ever famine scales and engaged themselves in a series of canal building and irrigation improvements. The results were that the mortality rate decreased rapidly. There was the threat of famine but after 1902 there was no major famine in India until 1943. In 1907 and in 1874 the response from the British was better, in both cases rice was imported  from abroad and famine was avertedines continued until Independence in 1947, with the Bengal famine of 1943-44 being among the most devastating, killing 3-4 million during World War II. In 1966, there was a 'near miss' in Bihar, when the USA allocated 900,000 tons of grain to fight the famine. 35 million people were starving in Bihar during that famine in December 1966.


 

Hazard (Drought) Vulnerability in Uttar Pradesh

The recurrence period of highly deficient rainfall in East U.P. has been calculated to be 4 years whereas in West U.P. it is 3 years. In the recent years, the year 2002, & 2004, 2005 and 2007 were severe in terms of drought, with loss to crop, livestock and property. Floods, drought, fire and earthquakes are the major natural disasters that severely affect the state of Uttar Pradesh. The first three being the most frequent and causing the maximum damages. Annually approximately 2.7 million hectares are affected by floods in the State resulting in annual losses to the tune of 4.32 billion rupees. In recent years droughts have also taken a significant toll in the State. The years 2002 and 2004 were severe in terms of drought, with loss to crop (including livestock) and property assessed at Rs.75.40 billion and Rs. 72.92 billion, respectively. Loss due to 2006 & 2007 drought

2.2       Hazard risk assessment and vulnerability mapping

Uttar Pradesh is vulnerable to various disasters. Below table explains (on the basis of hazard analysis) district-wise degree of risk and vulnerability involved in Uttar Pradesh.

S.No

Hazards

Districts of maximum      risk (in terms of damage and losses-)

Vulnerability

1

Earthquakes

North East, East, Central, North, North West and West

Less to High

2

Floods

Eastern part of Uttar Pradesh,
N-western part

Moderate to High

3

Windstorms

All districts

Low to medium

4

Drought

All  districts

Medium to high

Disasters threaten sustainable economic development worldwide. In the past twenty years, earthquakes, floods, tropical storms, droughts and other calamities have killed around three million people, inflicted injury, disease, homelessness, and misery on one billion others, and caused damage worth millions of rupees. Disasters destroy decades of human effort and investments, thereby placing new demands on society for reconstruction and rehabilitation.

Having the higher population density mainly depends on agriculture and related activities which intern depend on monsoon rainfall. Drought   is the main disaster adversely affecting the life of people as well as economic development in the state. Thus it is important to have a more realistic drought management plan for the state of Uttar Pradesh. Three major functional areas were recognised as necessary components of a comprehensive approach: prevention, response and recovery. Within these areas, the key responsibilities of agencies include:

Planning

The analysis of requirements and the development of strategies for resources utilization.

Preparedness

The establishment of structures, development of systems and testing and evaluation by organizations of their capacity to perform their allotted roles.

Co‑ordination

The bringing together of organizations and resources to ensure effective disaster management.

This document is to initiate coordinated efforts to have an effective drought management strategy for the State, which will minimise the impact of future drought effects on state economy. The other main focus area of this document is to have an extremely practical, efficient and coordinated response and recovery plans in place from the Panchayat to the State level (village being the unit of planning) with a mechanism that will ensure increasing community participation in drought management preparedness activities.

The Disaster Management Plan for the state is proposed to be developed as an integrated plan encompassing all disasters in the multi-response fashion keeping with the international trend. Albeit, a common planning and operational framework is proposed for all the four disasters which would ensure a systematic assessment, communication and management of risk, appropriate for a disaster and identification of response.


 

 

In this part, on the basis of nature of hazards, socio-economic parameters and institutional arrangements (discussed in previous chapters) and community preparedness Strength, Weakness, Opportunity Threats (SWOT) risk and vulnerability assessment has been conducted.

For risk and vulnerability assessment, physical, socio-economic, housing, community and institutional preparedness related parameters have been identified. To assess their importance, checklists were prepared under each parameter and information was gathered from various primary and secondary sources. Based on the information collected under the checklists, few indicators were formulated and status of strength, weakness, opportunity and threat has been assigned which was further utilized for risk and vulnerability analysis.

Following table explains the risk and vulnerability assessment based on the certain parameters:

Parameters

Indicators

Strength

Weakness

Opportunities

Threats

Physical

Soil

 

 

 

 

Terrain/Physical features               

 

 

 

 

Geology

 

 

 

 

Water depth

 

 

 

 


 

 

Socio-eonomic

Population Density

 

 

 

 

Literacy rate

 

 

 

 

Slums/JJ clusters etc

 

 

 

 

Industrial density

 

 

 

 

Type of Employment

 

 

 

 

Community Preparedness

Public awareness about local disasters

 

 

 

 

 

Local level Disaster management planning

 

 

 

 

 

Vulnerability and resource mapping done

 

 

 

 

 

Local people trained in Disaster management

 

 

 

 

 

Local People active in disaster management  initiatives

 

 

 

 

 

Identification of Disasters by local authorities

 

 

 

 

Institutional Capacities

Disaster Management Plan

 

 

 

 

 

Communication

 

 

 

 

 

Transportation

 

 

 

 

 

Response planning

 

 

 

 

 

Medical Facilities

 

 

 

 

 

Search & rescue

 

 

 

 

 

Capabilities

 

 

 

 

The SWOT analysis (Table) clearly shows a fragile condition of Uttar Pradesh in terms of disasters. Some of the inferences, drawn, are mentioned below:

1- Soft alluvial soil around river Yamuna pose risk of high damages during earthquakes and soil in and around eastern part of Uttar Pradesh near rivers Ghaghara, Rapti, Gandak and Ganga, pose grim situation of floods. A high population, high residential and industrial density, scattered slums, living in poor housing conditions along with poor preparedness and administrative response aggravates the risk and may lead to colossal losses to lives and property during emergencies.

 2- On the other hand, Uttar Pradesh is also full of strengths, which may become opportunity in case of any disaster and a systematic approach may also help to overcome from above-mentioned weaknesses. Therefore an approach towards community preparedness for disaster management may help in reducing risk at the local level.

2.2.1 Hazard risk assessment and vulnerability mapping for drought

Identification of available resources, manpower, material, equipment and adequate delegation of financial and administrative powers are perquisites to the successful operation of Trigger Mechanism. The Trigger Mechanism is, in essence, Standard Operating Procedure (SOP), which lays down in a scientific and comprehensive manner the implementation plans on receipt of a warning of impending disaster or plans to respond quickly to disasters that give no warning. Activities such as evacuation, search and rescue, temporary shelter, food, drinking water, clothing, health and sanitation, communication, accessibility and public information are important components of disaster management, which would follow on the activation of Trigger mechanism. These activities are common to all types of disasters and will require the preparation of sub-action plans by each specified authority.

L concept has been developed to define different levels of disasters in order to facilitate the responses and assistances to States and Districts.

L0 level denotes normal times which will be utilised for close monitoring, documentation, prevention and preparatory activities. Training of search and rescue, rehearsals, evaluation and inventory updations for response activities will be carried out during this time.

L1 level is denoted when the disaster can be managed at the District level and the State and Centre will have to be ready in case assistance is required for disaster relief and/or recovery operations.

L2 level disaster situations are those, which require assistance and active participation of the State mobilization of its Resources for management of disasters

L3 level  disaster situation is in case of large scale disaster where the State and District authorities have been overwhelmed and requires assistance from the Central Government for reinstating the State and District machinery as well as for rescue, relief, other response and recovery measures. In most cases, the scale and intensity of the disaster as determined by the concerned technical agency like IMD are sufficient for the declaration of L3 disaster.

2.3.      National Agricultural Drought Assessment and Monitoring System (NADAMS)

Agricultural drought assessment using space technology inputs has been operational in India since 1989, through a project ‘National Agricultural Drought Assessment and Monitoring System (NADAMS)’. NADAMS provides near real-time information on prevalence, severity level and persistence of agricultural drought at state/district/sub-district level. Currently, the project covers 13 states of India, which are predominantly agriculture based and prone to drought situation.

Agricultural conditions are monitored at state/district level using daily observed coarse resolution (1.1 km) NOAA AVHRR data for 11 states. Moderate resolution data from Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) sensor of Resourcesat 1 (IRS P6) of 56 m and Wide Field Sensor (WiFS) of IRS 1C and 1D of 188 m are being used for detailed assessment of agricultural drought at district and sub district level in four states namely, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Haryana and Maharashtra.

 

 

2.4       Functions of NADAMS and its uses 

Services

·        Agricultural vegetation condition images/maps at state/district level

·        Products on drought related parameters - rainfall, crop areas etc

·        Agricultural drought assessment maps

Drought reports

·        Frequency: Fortnightly/monthly

·        Dissemination: Surface mail, e mail and DMS-VP network.

Users

·        Ministry of Agriculture, Dept. of Agrl. & Cooperation,  Govt. of India

·        Directors of Agriculture of different states

·        Relief/Revenue Commissioners of states

·        India Meteorological Department

·        State Remote Sensing Application Centers

Information utilization

·        Input to review meetings of agricultural situation by Agriculture depts.

·        Input for contingency plans.

·        Relief claims and relief management.

Future Plans

·        Extension of AWiFS based sub district level     assessment to other states.

·        Establishment of Automatic Weather Stations through out the country

·        Development of Decision Support System for drought assessment

·        Agro advisory services.

·        Quantitative assessment of drought impact on agriculture.

·        Early warning information on the incidence of agricultural drought.

·        Earlier years of all-India drought 1987, 1979, 1972.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Fig-3)

2.5       Frequency   of   drought in   different Parts of INDIA.

In India, drought essentially occurs due to failure of south-west monsoon (June –September).Areas affected by drought needs to wait till  the next monsoon, as more than 73% of annual rainfall in the country is received during the SW Monsoon season. Drought occurs ones in 3 years in the western part to ones in 5 years in eastern Uttar Pradesh (Fig-3).                                        

It is hard to overstate the importance of the monsoon to India and the national obsession about exactly when it will make landfall (always in the southern state of Kerala, almost always in early June). Agriculture makes up nearly 18% of national gross domestic product, according to Morgan Stanley. Most farmers, without the benefit of irrigation, have just the annual June-to-September rains to water their field. Indian rainfall in 2002, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 08 & 09 (Fig-4).

[Monsoon Maps]

(Fig-4)

A weak rainfall can hurt crop output, drinking-water supply, power generation and consumer demand and add another obstacle to government efforts to improve the rural economy as a key to sustained GDP growth. Citigroup economist Rohini Malkani estimates that an insufficient monsoon could shave close to two percentage points off annual growth. Almost 80% of the country is under the threat of drought (Fig-5).       

[Monsoon charts]

(Fig-5)

India's Ministry of Earth Sciences recently approved $620 million to be spent over five years to modernize weather technology. Department plans to set up 1,000 automatic weather stations there are now 125. It will also have another 2,000 stations to measure precipitation. The new devices, which relay data by satellite, will let him make better predictions, he says.

The department will have to change its statistical model, too, it has used the same one more than 50 years. "The basic problem of the India Meteorological Department is that they are mired in the past," IMD defends its model, noting that it has accurately gauged the country's average rainfall for most years. The British set up the department in 1875. In the early days, it gathered measurements of rainfall and temperature by telegram, the same way it sent flood and drought warnings. Now information is relayed via satellite. Earlier Meteorology Department is used charts made by hand from data received from Russian satellites. Today; computer-generated charts and satellite images. "A lot of progress has been made."

2.4       Multi-Hazard Disaster Management Plan

Hazard profile of State

This Plan is the first attempt to bring out a common plan for the State for all categories of possible disasters identified, to which the State is vulnerable too. The Plan has a ‘multi-hazard approach’ and incorporates various actions which will promote a ‘Culture of Preparedness.’ Extensive consultations, referring to various Disaster Management Plans globally and as suggested by the HPC have led to the incorporation of specific concepts. They are:

Trigger mechanism is an emergency quick response mechanism, which would spontaneously set in motion all disaster management activities for response and recovery without loss of critical time. This would entail all the participating managers to know in advance the task assigned to them and the manner of response.

The rainfall for the period 01.06.2009 to 02.09.2009 indicates that most of the area in the country has received deficient rainfall including the entire State of Uttar Pradesh (Fig.–6). The districtwise distribution of rainfall for the State indicates that only 9 district have normal rainfall during the above period, where as remaining districts are deficient (20% to 59%) or scanty (60% to 99%). Data for 5 districts are not available      (Fig.–6).     

(Fig-6)

 

The available data of rainfall indicate on drought perspective that –

·        16% of the Country’s total area is drought prone and annually about 50 million people in the country are exposed to the crisis of drought;

·        A total of 68% of sown area is subject to drought in varying degrees; 3- 35% of area receives rainfall between 750 mm to 1125 mm and is drought prone;

·        Most of drought prone areas lie in the arid (19.6%), semi- arid (37%) and sub-humid(21%) areas of the country that occupy 77.6% of its total land area of 329 million hectares.  

·        Annual Average Rainfall is 1160 mm in India. However, 85% is concentrated in 100-120 days (SW Monsoon).

·        33%of area receives less than 750-mm rainfall and is   chronically drought prone;

·        21% area receives less than 750 mm rainfall (large area of Peninsular and Rajasthan)

·        Rainfall is erratic in 4 out of 10 years.

·        Irrigation Potential is 140 Million Ha (76 M Ha Surface + 64 M Ha Groundwater)

·        Depletion of Ground water and limitation of surface water imply that not all net sown area is    amenable to irrigation.

·        Per Capita Water availability is steadily declining due to increase in   population, rapid industrialization, urbanization, cropping intensity and declining ground water level. Problems are likely to aggravate.

·        Net Result – Inevitability of Drought in Some Part or Other of the country.

  The mechanism for anticipating and managing droughts necessarily differs from similar arrangements concerning other disasters, natural calamities (like earthquakes, floods, cloudbursts,   tsunami etc) or man-made disasters, for the following reasons:

(i) Slow onset and prolonged course of droughts as against the other disasters, which have rapid onset, and a limited duration; and

(ii) Early warning indicators in case of droughts are necessarily ambiguous because they may or may not culminate in a full-blown drought.

The Government of India in 2002 decided to retain the issue of management of drought with the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation when it was decided to transfer the management of all other type of natural and man-made disasters with the Ministry of Home Affairs. Unlike other natural disasters its onset is slow but has a very serious impact on the economy due to its intensity and longer duration over a period of time.

2.7       State Government’s primary responsibility

The primary responsibility of managing drought (or any other natural disasters) is of the respective State Governments. The role of the Central Government is to supplement the efforts of the State Government in effective management of disasters and provide additional resources (food grains / fodders financial assistance etc.) to combat the situation.

The risk management plan having early warning indicators in case of drought are ambiguous, as they may or may not culminate into a full-blown drought.   In such situations the relief based management approach has to be launched to contain the impact of drought. Thus, it is to be understood that besides having a general risk management plan for handling drought with long-term and short-term approaches, we need to have a Crisis Management Plan (CMP) to deal with drought situation by the Central Government and the State Governments to minimize its impact.

2.8       Early indicators of Droughts

The following constitute ‘early warning indicators’:

 

For Kharif (sowing June to August)

·        i) Delay in onset of South-West Monsoon.

·        ii) Long ‘break’ activity of South-West Monsoon.

·        iii) Insufficient rains during the month of July. 7

·        iv) Rise in Price of fodder.

·        v) Absence of rising trend in Reservoir Levels.

·        vi) Drying up sources of Rural Drinking Water Supply.

·        vii) Declining trend in progress of sowing over successive weeks compared to corresponding figures for “normal years”.

 

For Rabi (sowing November to January)

·        i) Deficiency in closing figures for South-West Monsoon (30th-September).

·        ii) Serious depletion in level of Ground Water compared to figures for “normal years’.

·        iii) Fall in the level of Reservoirs compared to figures of the corresponding period in the ‘normal years’ – indication of poor recharge following SW Monsoon.

·        iv) Indication of marked soil moisture stress.

·        v) Rise in price of fodder.

·        vi) Increased deployment of water through tankers  (For Tamil Nadu & Pondicherry the crucial period is North East Monsoon – October to December) Other Seasons

For areas like Gujarat, Madhya Maharashtra, Marathwada and North Interior Karnataka the crucial period is March / April when due to chronic hydrological drought, many areas develop acute scarcity of Drinking Water.


 

CHAPTER - III

PREVENTIVE MEASURES

3.1       Natural Disasters

State of uttar Pradesh disaster management arrangements have to be designed to deal with four major types of hazards:

Though the focus of attention has been on the more frequent disasters like floods, hailstorms, droughts and earthquake, the same disaster management arrangements and resources could be used for a wider range of hazards for which there has been little or no experience in the state. Therefore socio-economic condition and people participation should also be taken careoff. Therefore management plan may be integrated (involve all stakeholders). The management of emergencies is a shared responsibility involving many people and organizations in the community. It is not something done by one sector to or for the rest of the society, although some organizations have specialist roles of this kind.

3.2       Mitigation

A hazard becomes a disaster only when it affects human settlements and causes loss of life and damage to property. In order to reduce the impact of such events through mitigation efforts, it is necessary to understand how such hazards become disasters.

Pre-disaster planning consists of activities such as disaster mitigation and disaster preparedness. Disaster mitigation focuses on the hazard that causes the disaster and tries to eliminate or drastically reduce its direct effects. The best example of mitigation is the construction of dams or levies/embankments to prevent floods or coordination of release of water from various irrigation dams to avoid flooding in the downstream areas.  Planting of crops that are less affected by disasters, changing crop cycles, controlling land-use patterns to restrict development in high-risk areas and diversification of economic activities to act as insurance to offset losses in different sectors.

Structural measures such as the construction of protective works or alterations designed to diminish the vulnerability of the elements at risk, and non-structural measures, such as regulating land use, irrigation pratices and building codes, incorporating preventive aspects into development planning, and equipping line departments for damage reduction, can all reduce the impact of a disaster on a region or a population. Everything that is done to reduce or prevent the damages that a disaster may cause is called “mitigation of risks.” Such mitigation measures can be integrated with normal developmental activities and inter-departmental coordination. Mitigation is not, in fact, a cost. In the long run it pays for itself; it does so in lives saved and in real money.

3.3       Mitigation Strategy

Partnerships for building safer communities

Mitigation distinguishes actions that have a long-term impact from those that are more closely associated with preparedness for, immediate response to, and short-term recovery from a specific disaster, recognizing that the boundaries are not absolute. Mitigation efforts must not only be a priority for the repair, reconstruction, and rehabilitation of developed areas, but must become a prerequisite for growth in areas that have not been developed. A complicating factor is that there will always be residual losses from extreme events above and beyond those for which mitigation is cost-effective. It may not be economical to protect buildings and infrastructure other than critical facilities from these more extreme events since the increased cost of construction can far exceed the damage prevented.

3.3.1    Goals of Mitigation Strategy

To substantially increase public awareness of disaster risk so that the public demands safer communities in which to live and work; and to significantly reduce the risks of loss of life, injuries, economic costs, and destruction of natural and cultural resources that result from disasters.

3.3.1.1 On going Drought Control Measures 

Several efforts are being made to mitigate the impacts of drought, namely:-

The construction of reservoirs; digging of bore wells; deepening of existing wells;   lowering of river intakes and diversion of flood water for groundwater recharge; conserving soil moisture by proper crop rotation; and use of drought resistant varieties. Under the Drought Prone Area Program of the Government of India executed by the State, emphasis was given on the improvement of minor irrigation facilities, soil and water conservation works and afforestation. These measures for drought control in the state are executed through Departments of Rural Development, Agriculture, Minor Irrigation and Forest etc.

Further, remote sensing data is also being used to help plan for drought mitigation measures. The beginning of present Natural Resources Information System (NRIS) was first started in 1988-89 in the district Lalitpur with the “Combating Drought Project”. The name of the project in IInd Phase for certain selected blocks of the country including Uttar Pradesh was started with named as “Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development”(IMSD) and finally in the Phase-III its name was further change as “Natural Resources Information System” (NRIS) and the work of entire state was completed and handed over to Dept. of Planning Govt. of U.P. Dept. of Planning Govt. of U.P. through Directorate of Economic and Statistics loaded the entire data on Website named www.gisup.nic.in  as NRIS.

Under the Calamity Relief Programme 2007-08 from December 2007 to 30th June 2008 R.S.A.C-UP has prepared blockwise groundwater potential maps superimposing village boundaries for all the blocks of 9 drought prone districts and atlas containing these maps were provided to concern DM’s, CDO’s and lined departments. Apart from this; geophysical resistivity surveys were carried out and sites recommended for drilling were drilled successfully.      

3.3.1.2 The Constitution of State Weather Group

The constitution of state Crop Weather Watch Group with following objectives:- 

·        Assessment of region-wise and crop wise area sown in the state.

·        Assessment of status of cropped area received by Department of Agriculture from its field staff        and corroboration with crop area and status information from remote sensing data.

·        Analysis of status of rainfall and medium range weather forecast received from NCMRWF, (IMD), and

·        Preparation of contingency plans for farmers indicating steps to be taken by them if the rainfall is received in the next week, next fortnight or next month. The contingency plan consisted of advisories on alternate, low moisture requiring crops and management practices to be adopted by the farmers in different districts/ divisions of the state keeping in view the current and future rainfall condition. 

3.3.1.3 Role of Science and Technology

In Mitigation and Long-term Drought Management measures inputs of science and technology play significant role. A number of  long-term and short-term  programmes  for  the  rural  India  have  evolved some  of  them are  the  Drought  Prone  Areas  Programme (DPAP), Desert Development Programme  (DDP),  Accelerated Rural  Water  Supply  Programme  (ARWSP),  Pradhan  Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY), Food for Work Programme (FWP), National Watershed Development  Programme (NWDP), Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (REGP), Integrated Wasteland Development Programme (IWDP), Swarna-Jayanthi Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY),  Swarnajayanthi  Grameen Swarozgar  Yojana  (SGSY), Tube  Wells and Handpumps construction,  Food  & Fodder Development Programmes  etc. Under different Ministries/Departments G.O.I. and the State Governments. Besides, banking and Cooperative, Credit Societies sectors also provide help.

3.3.2    Elements of Mitigation Strategy

Historical data on disasters clearly underscores the fact, that disasters have, by and large, a definite frequency to their occurrence. While in Uttar Pradesh, earthquakes may occur very rare, floods, on the other hand, occurs every year, drought frequency is about 3-5 years with few exceptions. With the advancement in science and increased understanding of the natural phenomena, it is possible to apply this knowledge in combination with the traditional or local modes of mitigation, to chalk out a comprehensive mitigation strategy.A mitigation strategy however, cannot be successful unless it has the backing and support of all concerned  the administrative machinery, the research institutions, the non-officials and the community. So, it also becomes imperative to have built-in institutional arrangements and/or legislative backing to oversee the mitigation strategy over a period of time.

3.3.2.1 The main elements of mitigation strategy therefore, are:

·        Risk Assessment and Vulnerability Analysis.

·        Applied Research and Technology Transfer.

·        Public Awareness and Training.

·        Institutional Mechanisms.

·        Incentives and Resources for Mitigation

·        Land Use Planning and Regulations

·        Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can also play a crucial role in the gathering and analysis of information needed for disaster management. The GIS can give higher quality results than can be obtained manually, regardless of the costs involved. It can facilitate decision making and improve coordination among agencies when efficiency is at a premium.

3.3.2.2 In general, there are three categories of information to be assembled

·        Natural hazards information.

·        Information of natural ecosystems.

·        Information on population and infrastructure.

3.3.2.3 Research and Development

Universities or technical educational institutions should be encouraged to include disaster mitigation as a part of graduate training programmes. The contents of such a course can be location-specific to the institution. Research and studies should be undertaken on various aspects of disasters and their reduction, with national and international assistance if required, on such topics as: the assessment and mapping of hazards, early warning systems, the effects of deforestation, effects of changing land-use patterns and urbanization and specific vulnerabilities of various systems such as power, sewer, transport etc., on the incidence and damage caused by disasters and the countermeasures required; and the application of remote sensing and GIS technologies in hazard, forecasting, warning, assessment and management. Non-structural approaches, social and developmental policies, institutional arrangements, community preparedness and response capacity are some of the areas in which research can be undertaken.

Such steps would lead to the formulation of specific mitigation measures, more appropriate to the area. Community based mitigation measures combined with scientific knowledge would expand the existing knowledge of the local community, as well as the students due to the increased interaction. A comprehensive database on mitigation measures can also be generated in this manner. At the same time, it is essential that this database on the mitigative measures are communicated to, and understood by the local self governments and local administrators, who might be involved in giving clearances and permissions for various projects.

3.3.3    Potential Mitigative Approaches 

The GoUP’s approach towards mitigating the impacts of these hazards has primarily been ‘structural’ with large investments in physical interventions though efforts at using available technologies for improved planning and implementation are also underway. Further, though the government realizes the need for dovetailing mitigation efforts with   development programs, so far, little has been achieved in this regard.

Nonetheless, there are ongoing parallel initiatives in the State that could be synthesized with current mitigation measures to form comprehensive disaster risk reduction strategies. These relate to micro-finance, micro-insurance and crop insurance that could facilitate risk pooling and spreading. Micro-finance activities are promoted in rural areas primarily through initiatives of non-governmental organisations and have the government’s support in terms of availability of matching funds for entrepreneurial activities. However, currently these initiatives have not achieved their potential and largely remain as small savings and credit mechanisms, barring a few exceptions.

Micro-insurance has not been promoted aggressively enough to make a significant impact. Some private companies such as Birla Sunlife, have introduced group life insurance schemes in eastern UP, but these initiatives are in a nascent stage and are yet to expand their services to a wider clientele. On the other hand, given that almost 80 percent of UP’s population resides in rural areas and that it is primarily an agricultural State, crop insurance has considerable  potential as a risk spreading mechanism. Further, under the National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (NAIS) initiated in 1999-2000 the GoUP is promoting crop and weather insurance schemes in the State.

3.3.4    Cost-Benefit Analysis

The underlying assumption of mitigation is that in the long-term analysis, the expenditure on mitigation measures will prove to be cost-effective in terms of the savings generated via reduced losses and reduced deaths. The hazard assessment and the vulnerability analysis can, to an extent, project the probable future losses. While the specific time and location of future losses cannot be specified, general trends, and areas of elevated risk can be identified. Specific mitigative actions can be taken to prevent losses in these areas. However, such actions do have a cost built into them, in terms of relocation or structural enhancements or protection. This cost, however, will be offset by the expected reduction in loss during a disaster. The difference between the cost of mitigation and the cost of expected loss, is a tangible financial benefit.

While it is difficult to quantify many intangible assets like loss of life or disruption in social structure, studies done in many countries have clearly demonstrated the benefits of mitigation as compared to the expenditure incurred on mitigation. There are various non-financial benefits of mitigation. A cost benefit analysis of any proposed mitigation measure is therefore, essential to analyze the extent of loss-reduction. The effectiveness and efficiency of mitigation investments is directly influenced by scientific development in hazard identification and loss reduction measures. For this reason, scientific and engineering researches provide the foundation for improved mitigation investment returns.

3.3.4.1 Approaches and Policy Statement towards Management of Disasters

Total geographical area of Uttar Pradesh is 240.93 lac hectares. Recurring natural disasters in the State over the years have been causing severe damage and adversely affecting human, plant and animal life, property and environment. Natural disasters that are of significance in Uttar Pradesh are, Floods, Droughts, Fires and Earthquakes. Loss of life and property from these disasters, especially the former three, are in terms of hundreds of crores of rupees annually. Considerable efforts are made every year, both by the government and the public, to mitigate the losses encountered during a disaster. But recurring floods, droughts and fires have been pointers to the manifestation of increased vulnerabilities and inadequacy of the various sporadic mitigation measures attempted. The emerging context is an increase in frequency of disasters, their escalating cost, rising levels of vulnerability, narrowing differences between natural & manmade disasters amidst an increasingly fragile environment. This underscores the dire need for a holistic approach to dovetail mitigation efforts with development programmes in the State. Emergency preparedness is crucial for recovery from disasters with minimal loss of life and property.

A holistic approach has been adopted in the preparation of the State Disaster Management Plan, and it will address the multi-hazards, the State is vulnerable to.  It takes into account, past lessons and experiences and is built on what exists at different levels; streamlining bottlenecks in systems and operational management procedures. The State Plan has also adopted the generic categorization of disasters as suggested by the HPC with specific plans to handle different disasters by various departments at the State level. 

3.3.4.2 Role of the State Government

The State Disaster Management Plan only highlights the activities of the State Government agencies and departments of Prevention, Response and Recovery for L1 and L2 disasters and the activities during L0.

The roles of the State Government as envisaged in the Plan are

·        Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation.

·        Knowledge Networking and transfer, spread and adoption of improved and appropriate technology for disaster prevention, response and recovery

·        Review, modification and adoption of appropriate laws, rules, codes and other measures to increase disaster management at all levels

·        Incorporating disaster management aspects in normal developmental activities

·        Financial Matters

·        Building of Inventories

·        Initiating Community Awareness Programme

                    

·        Training of department officials from the State Headquarters and districts, members from the community and other stakeholders through a participatory approach

·        Generating awareness through media and other means such as workshops for students, teachers and other stakeholders.

·        Proper Documentation

3.3.5    Training Needs Assessment

One of the most critical components of the Mitigation Strategy is the training to be imparted to the officials and staff of the various departments involved at the state and the district level. Through the training inputs it is visualized that both information and methodology will be shared with the concerned persons. The training activity will be undertaken both at state level through State level training institute and at the district level through NGOs, government training institutions and institutions affiliated to universities and research centres. The need for action and intervention in a disaster situation is at multiple levels and cuts across various sectors. The quality of intervention depends a lot on the inter-sectoral, inter-departmental coordination and efficient teamwork Thus; it is pertinent to assess the specific training requirements of the key personnel to be involved in the intervention.

Training Needs Assessment (TNA) exercises for different categories and levels of functionaries; will enable identification of the gaps that need to be attended to through training activities. These will be done by assessment of the level of knowledge, attitudes and skills, with respect to the task to be undertaken and the expected levels of knowledge, attitudes and skills. Preparation of training modules and materials based on such TNA exercises will be undertaken by the training institutions.

3.4.      Mitigation Measures

The level of disaster preparedness is a major factor in mitigation of natural disasters. With the available technology, some disasters, particularly, cyclones and floods, can be forecast. However, not all the people can be warned in time, and in many places there are not enough disaster preparedness measures, such as adequate number of easily accessible shelters in flood affected areas and evacuation equipment. There is a need for dissemination of the measures to be taken before, during and after a disaster event. Particularly preparedness measures need to be practiced periodically.

Environmental planning would also be necessary to avoid or mitigate losses from disasters, by using such instruments as land-use planning and disaster management. Mitigation of the effects of disasters and protection against hazards require both structural and non-structural measures. The traditional approach to reducing losses relied upon the implementation of structural mitigation measures such as the construction of dams, levies and channel improvements only with not be fully effectives unless the social awareness of non structural measures. 

In recent years, the inadequacy of programmes based solely on structural measures has been recognized. It has been suggested that numerous attempts have been suggested to employ non-structural loss prevention measures, as well to assist in minimizing losses through exercising control over development in disaster-prone areas. Non-structural mitigation measures typically concentrate on identifying hazard prone areas and limiting their use. Examples include land-use zoning, selection of building sites, tax incentives, insurance programmes, relocation of residents to and the establishment of a warning system.

Disaster-proof structures, such as shelters, raised platforms, emergency food, grain, silos drinking water storage tanks and health facilities, can be built in high-risk areas, but easy access to such structures must be ensured. Design codes for buildings and other structures need to be constantly reviewed in the light of previous experience. From time to time it could be necessary to revise disaster-management regulations and disaster-resistant designs.

3.4.1    Uttar Pradesh Disaster Management Arrangements

The management of emergencies is a shared responsibility involving many people and organizations in the community. It is not something done by one sector to or for the rest of the society, although some organizations have specialist roles of this kind.

In addition to the response services, most government departments have some role to play. The disaster response role is usually a minor part of the responsibilities. However, many departments have an essential prevention responsibility. Municipalities, Gram Panchayats, Panchayat Samitis and Zilla Parishads have essential roles in disaster management. Besides the Government, Voluntary organisations such as Red Cross, Civil Defence and organizations specialised in search and rescue operations play well-defined & vital roles in disaster management. Individual members of the community are also responsible for taking preventive, protective and restorative actions in their own and community’s best interests. Therefore the arrangements must be Comprehensive (cover prevention, response and recovery)

Prevention, response and recovery are all important aspects of disaster management and each should be explicitly addressed in the arrangements. There are overlaps of sub-categories. In the overlap areas between the categories there are activities that have characteristics of more than one category. For example, evacuation is a response activity, which is directly concerned with the affected people and is linked to recovery activities.


 

CHAPTER - IV

INTEGRATION OF MITIGATION MEASERS WITH THE DEVELPMENTAL PLAN

4.1       Total Water Resources Available in the State                                         

In the state of Uttar Pradesh a total of about 161.70 BCM (131.0 m.a.f) of surface water and about 72 BCM (58.4 m.a.f) exploitable (total replenish able 84 BCM are 68.1 m.a.f.) groundwater resources are available for utilization of which 43.8 BCM (35.5 maf) of surface water and about 27 BCM (21.9 maf) (Net groundwater has been utilized. Thus the remaining;

Total available surface water resources

161.70 BCM

Total available exploitable groundwater water resources

72.00 BCM

Total available Water resources (surface water +groundwater water)

233.70 BCM

Total utilized surface water

43.80 BCM

Ongoing Projects capacity after completion

27.80 BCM

Water which can not be utilized at present

43.20 BCM

Total utilized groundwater water

27.00 BCM

Water resources reserve for drinking, industrial & pollution control

24.70 BCM

Total

166.50 BCM

Amount of water (Surface+ GW) available for utilization

67.2  BCM

Balance Surface Water

46.2   BCM

Balance Groundwater

45.00 BCM

Areawise Distribution and Development of Groundwater (As on 1.4.2004)

 

S.No.

Name  of

Zone

NET  GW

Recharge

Annual  GW Draft

 

Balance

GW

GW
DEV. %

1

 

Eastern

 

2.54

 

1.68

 

0.86

 

66

 

      2

 

Western

 

2.58

 

2.05

 

0.53

 

79

 

       3

 

Central

 

1.45

 

0.96

 

0.49

 

66

 

      4

Bundelkhand

 

0.44

 

0.19

 

0.25

 

43

 

 

Total

7.01

4.88

2.13

69

But the special distributions of groundwater resources are uneven. Out of 820 blocks in the state 37 are overexploited, 13 are critical, 88 are semi–critical and remaining 682 are in the safe category. Regionwise and blockwise data indicates that there are scopes of groundwater development in bundelkhand region.

And some other districts/blocks of the state that should be harnessed. Other water Conservation measures may also be taken care-off.

However, the spatial distributions of groundwater resources are uneven. Out of 820 blocks in the state 37 are overexploited, 13 are critical, 88 are semi –critical and remaining 682 are in the safe category. Region wise and block wise data indicates that there are scope of groundwater development in Bundelkhand region. In addition there are other districts/blocks of the state that should be harnessed. Other water conservation measures may also be taken care off.

All works related groundwater exploitation, artificial recharge and soil water conservation are being done by various central & state government departments. Other works, which are included in development plan or may be included and are useful for disaster mitigation.

4.2       Names of Central Gov. Depts. And Autonomous Organizations and Mitigation Works to Be done under the Developmental Plan are given below-

S.
NO.

 

Central Government

Depts. /Orgs.

Works to be done under the developmental plan

1.

Ministry of Finance

Provide adequate financial support to Agricultural sector for micro- finance and Crop Insurance.

2.

Ministry of Health & family   welfare                                           

All Schemes of social welfare.

3.

Ministry of food Processing

Establishment of food processing units in state.

4.

Ministry of Earth  sciences

Installation of AWS and seismograph stations in U.P.

5.

Ministry of Water Resources

Monitoring of surface water and groundwater level six times in a year. Implementation of water resources development schemes.

6.

Ministry of Forest and environment

Provide fund for a forestation of plants suitable to the specific areas of state. A forestation on Gram Samaj Land.

7.

Ministry of Labours

 

Insurance schemes for unorganized rural and Urban labourers.

8.

Ministry of  Defense  

Construction of roads, rainwater-harvesting structures, roof top rainwater harvesting.

9.

Ministry of Agriculture

CROP monitoring & weather forecasting development of disaster resistant crop verities.

10.

Ministry of Communication

Installation of strong communication network.

11.

Ministry of Surface Transport

Construction of road and Inland waterways.

12.

 Ministry of    Urban Development & Poverty elevation

All schemes of urban development. Strict building   codes.

  13.

Ministry of Rural Development

All schemes of rural development; Land   resources, Drinking water, & Employment generation.

14.

Ministry of Railways

Utilization of land along railway track for groundwater recharge and draining excess water. Railways land and buildings for rainwater harvesting. Use of services for transporting goods from surplus areas to deficit areas.

15.

 

Department of space

Natural resources studies.   Monitoring and forecasting, real time mapping of disaster prone areas.  Real time disaster mapping and damages assessments. Disaster risk zones mapping.

16.

Wasteland Development Board

Provide fund for wasteland development in state. A forestation must be given priority so that forest area shall increase.

17.

IMD

Installation of AWS; Short, Medium, and Long range weather forecasting. Warning in case of abnormality.

19.

Dept. of Science & Technology

Strengthening of NRDMS & Science for society programs in the state

20.

CWC

Installation of water gauge stations at more location on the rivers. Diversion of excess water-to-water deficit areas for storage as surface water & groundwater recharge.

21.

CGWB

Groundwater exploration & drilling of exploratory bore wells and assessment of resources availability.

22.

Dept. of Bio Technology

Development of more profitable verities of plants, fruits, etc. Which sustain in the different climatic conditions of the state?

23.

NCDM

 

Give permission and financial support for opening “DROUGHT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE” in Lucknow.

24.

CPCB

Environment Protection

25.

NDM Division

Providing equipments which are necessary for disaster mitigation   works, useful at the time of rescue, recovery and rehabilitation. Material for temporary settlement at the time of disaster.

26.

BMTPC

Disaster proof low cost houses.

27.

And others

Other organization under their social works.

 

 

STATE GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS

 

S.
No.

 

Name of Depts. /Organizations.

       

WORKS WHICH ARE BEING DONE/ MAY   BE DONE

1.

 

 

Revenue Department.

 

 

Computerization & Updating of land records, Maintenance and Updating of Socio-economic status of rural population.

2.

 

Home Department

Public friendly and strict towards anti social elements.

3.

Planning

 

Decentralized Planning from Gram Panchayat, Nayai Panchayat –Zeela Panchayat with additional Inputs from Science & Technology

4.

Science & Technology

Preparation of Micro level; Risks Zonations maps for all

four types of natural disasters, Natural Resources Census

using remote sensing & GIS Techniques along  with Geophysical and GPS surveys. Creation of awareness among the public about the area specific disasters & preparedness for that.

5.

Agriculture Department

 

Advice to the farmers about the timing of sowing and verities of crop to be sown in case of flood and drought. All programs of the department have contribution in disaster management either one way or other.

6.

Rural Development Dept.

 

All existing schemes. Department may also include construction of permanent sheds and shelters for crops, cattalos and human being in flood, and thunderstorm prone areas.

7.

Food & Civil Supplies Department

P. D. S. should be strengthen and in flood prone areas these must be located at safer place.

8.

Animal Husbandry Department

Keep the record of cattels and give advice to owners to keep more profitable varieties. Keep stock of fodder & information about fodder availability in case of disaster.

9.

Energy Department

Uninterrupted power supply should be ensured. Power infrastructure must be disaster proof.

10.

Irrigation Department

All projects are disaster preventive. Emphasis must be given to conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater.

11.

 

Public Works Department

All works of buildings and road must be disaster resistant.

12.

Medical & Health

Department

P H C must be located at safer place specially in flood prone areas.

13.

Education Department

 

 

 

 

Include disaster management in courses of Primary ,and

Secondary level. In secondary  classes (level local) district, State and country level disaster could be included in class VI, VII, and VII as chapters in geography.

14.

 

Forest   Department

Encourage social forestry on Gram Samaj   Land.

 Plantation in Bundelkhand and Vindhyan  regions.

15.

Urban Development

 

 

 

Strict norms for resistant buildings while approving the maps for new building and retrofitting in old ones. Flood plain areas could be excluded from colonization’s.

 

16.

Cooperative Department

 

Cooperative Societies members may be trained for disaster management

17.

Environment Department

Natural Environment conditions could be protected. No body or organization could be allowed to do environmental degradation activities.

18.

Horticulture Department

 

Plantation of region specific fruits and vegetables.

19.

Industries Department

 

 

 Establishment of food processing units near by the

 production areas. This will provide employment to local

 people and  increase.

20.

Supporting Services

 

N C C,  N S S, SCOUT and GUIDE, Home Guards along with other volunteering organization could be kept active.

21.

And others

Local bodies must always keep their Disaster management cell active.

 


 

CHAPTER - V

DISASTER   PREPAREDNESS

5.1   Introduction

The State Plan for preparedness attempts to protect the lives and properties   of the people of the state from potentially devastating hazards by the implementation of an effective long term State Disaster Management Policy. The initiatives under this plan lay down certain objectives and suggest definitive strategies leading to the achievement of goals in a set time frame. The ultimate goal for the Government of Uttar Pradesh with respect to various hazards is to have prepared communities in such a way that when the hazards strike, there is little or no loss of life; least number of injuries and the losses to property should occur.

Each element in this plan has a specific role and significant contribution towards the end target of a disaster controlled state. All the elements attend to a distinct but interrelated with the area of concern. The plan rests on the conviction that well defined strategies, goals and end targets with identified players, roles and responsibilities are the precursors of successful implementation of any project.

5.2       Disaster Preparedness

Preparedness focuses on plans to respond to a disaster threat or occurrence. It takes into account an estimation of emergency needs and identifies the resources to meet these needs. It also involves preparation of well-designed plans to structure the entire post-disaster response, and familiarising the stakeholders, particularly the communities through training and simulation exercises. Preparedness has to be supported by the necessary legislation. Means, a readiness to cope with disasters or similar emergencies which cannot be avoided.

The first objective of preparedness is to reduce the disaster impact through appropriate actions and improve the capacity of those who are likely to be affected most.

The second objective is to ensure that ongoing development continues to improve the capacities and the capabilities of the system to strengthen preparedness efforts at community level.

Finally, it guides reconstruction so as to ensure reduction in vulnerability. The best examples of preparedness activities are the development of local warning and community evacuation plans through community education, evolving local response structures such as Community based Disaster Management Teams (DMT) and administrative preparedness by way of stockpiling of supplies; developing emergency plans for rescue and relief. Since disasters affect economic and social processes, preparedness and mitigation must emphasize the socioeconomic rather than just the physical aspects. If disasters demonstrate the vulnerability of the social system, then any policy for disaster management must include the potential reduction of such vulnerability.

5.3       Important Components of Preparedness Plan

The structural part is included in the developmental plans of various departments.

Community preparedness

Community preparedness depends upon following major components (Cottrell et al- 2001): Population characteristics (number of children, squatter settlement etc)

·        Building and critical infrastructure such as road, drinking water, communication, Network, health and sanitation

·        Physical environment

·        Social environment (social groups)

Looking at the complexity of repose mechanism during the disasters two sets of components have been studied to prepare this plan i.e. components of community preparedness and administrative response.

5.3.1 Components of Community Preparedness Plan

Several previous attempts have been made by researchers to measure community preparedness within various indicators. Some of the important components of measuring preparedness are given below:-

1.         Physical Safety: i.e. how safe community members are in view of the physical danger from these hazards?  

2.         Hazard awareness i.e. awareness level about hazards which have a reasonably higher probability of occurrence.

3.         Organization preparedness i.e. how far the community is organized to face a disaster i.e. existence of committee at community level, task forces, volunteers of civil defence and other local volunteers , trained disaster management teams and community disaster management plan etc

4.         Infrastructure and services which tries to measure current state of these services and how well restoring critical services as and when disruptions occur.

5.         Recovery ability i.e. ability of the community members to recover from the impact of the hazard.

6.         Physical environment i.e. state of environment to face hazards e.g. Condition of subsurface aquifers and vegetation etc

7.         Social capital i.e. degree to which social networking and cooperation exists among community members.

8.         Psychological preparedness i.e. how safe and prepared do community members feel in view of these hazards

9.         Cultural mechanism i.e. cultural richness such as existence, recognition and use of traditional mechanism to cope with such disasters.

10.       Household preparedness i.e. preparedness at a house hold members level.

5.3.2 Administrative preparedness

Administrative preparedness i.e. administrative preparedness is also an important component which helps in reducing relief and response time in a disaster situation.

5.4       Preparedness Plan for the State of Uttar Pradesh

Based on above-mentioned components following arrangements are required to enhance State level preparedness level.

5.4.1    Establishment of Emergency Operation Centre (EOC)

To ensure coordination within State, district and local authorities, EOC plays a very important role. Directing the operations at the affected site, the need for coordination at the district headquarter and the need for interaction with the state government to meet the conflicting demand at the time of disaster are the responsibilities of the Divisional/Deputy Commissioner and his team members. State/ District EOC help Incident Management Team to meet these conflicting demands. Keeping this in view, Uttar Pradesh has identified. Establihment of 7 State level Emergency Operations Centres (i.e. Allahabad, Jhansi, Agra, Merrute, Mooradabad, Lucknow & Azamgarh) and 18 Emergency Operations Centres (one each in every commissionary and District EOC for all the districts of the state. At present, these Operations Centres are temporarily running in all the Districts of State but there is a plan for further strengthening of the EOC building with equipments, manpower and other facilities.

5.4.2    On the receipt of warning or alert

On the receipt of warning or alert from any such agency which is competent to issue such a warning, or on the basis of reports from divisional commissioner/District Collector of the occurrence of  a disaster, all community preparedness measures including counter- disaster measures will be put into operation. The Chief Secretary/Relief Commissioner will assume the role or the Chief of Operations for Disaster Management. The occurrence of disaster would essentially bring into force the following;   The EOC will be on full alert. The EOC can be expanded to include branches with    responsibilities for specific tasks.

An ongoing VSAT, wireless communication and hotline contact with the divisional commissioner and collectors and SSPs of the affected districts.

5.4.3    Response Structure at State Level on occurrence of disaster

The Chief of Operation (Chief Secretary) will spell out the priorities and policy guidelines and Relief Commissioner will coordinate services of various departments and agencies including national and international aid agencies, and central government agencies. The EOC in its expanded form will continue to operate as long as the need for emergency relief operations continue till the long- term plans for rehabilitation are finalized. For managing long-term rehabilitation programmes, the responsibilities will be that of the respective line departments. This will enable the EOC to attend to other disaster situations, if need be.

The main branches in the EOC during a disaster situation will be operation services, resources, infrastructure, health, logistics, and communication and information management. Each branch will have specific tasks to perform with a branch officer of the rank of joint Secretary. The capacity of the various braches to coordinate amongst themselves and with the field units will ultimately decide the quality or response. The facilities and amenities to be provided in the EOC include well-designed control room and workstations for the branch and nodal officers equipped with VAST, wireless communication, hotlines, and intercoms. The EOC, as a databank will keep all district and state level action plans and maps. Provision of a car with wireless communication will be made for the EOC during normal times.

5.5.1    Institutional Arrangements at State Level

            Diagrammatic Representation of Institutional Arrangements at State Level

Text Box: Chief Secretary
(State Disaster Manager)
Text Box: Disaster Management Cell at  U.P. Academy of Administration and Management, Lucknow for Training and sensitization

 

 

  

 


 

Text Box: State Emergency Operations Centre
(SEOC)

 

Text Box: District Crisis Management Group (DCMG)
(Desk Officers and Officers-in-charge)

 

Text Box: Operation Desk Service Desk Infrastructure Desk 
Health Desk Logistic Desk Agriculture Desk Communication & Information Desk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

5.5.2    Institutional Arrangements at District Level

District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA)

District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) should be constituted for every district in the state under the co-chairmanship of the District Collectors and Chairperson of the Zillah Parishads. The DDMA will act as the district planning, coordinating and implementing body for disaster management at the district level in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the NDMA and the SDMA. The DDMA will identify the areas vulnerable to disaster, prepare the district disaster management plan and initiate measures for the prevention of disasters and the mitigation of its effects through the state government departments at the district level and the local bodies.

The local authorities such as the Panchayat Raj institutions, municipalities, district board, cantonment board, town planning authority etc will be actively associated with disaster management closely working with the vulnerable communities. All construction projects undertaken by the local authorities will be conforming to the standards and specification laid down for disaster prevention and mitigation

The Disaster Management Act has constituted two separate funds National Disaster Response fund and National Disaster Mitigation fund at the national state and district levels for comprehensively dealing with disasters and its cycles. The manner and method of constitution of the funds and the relationship of these two funds with the already existing National Calamity Relief fund and National Calamity Contingency fund and the linkage with various mitigation schemes and programmes under the annual and five year plans are the important issues.

It is expected that all these initiatives in the emerging disaster management framework of the country would have a salutary effect in reducing the risks of disasters in the country in the short and long run.


 

5.5.3         District Crisis Management Group

Diagrammatic Representation of Institutional Arrangements at District Level

 

 

 

 

5.6       Normal Time Activities of Emergency Operations Centre

(i)        State Level

·        Ensure warning and communication systems are in working conditions.

·        Collect and compilation of district-wise information in up-to-date form, related to   hazards, resources, trained manpower etc.

·        Integration of conventional forecasting with the state of art technologies, namely, remote sensing, Data Collection Platforms and GIS;

·        All proposed developmental activities using maximum possible information from remote sensing and incorporating hazard risk assessment for monitoring, evaluation and setting up of minimum standards for all infrastructural works, especially in hazard prone areas;

·        Operational use of satellite/aerospace data for real time data acquisition for monitoring, predicting and tracking potential hazards and predicting disaster damage scenarios;

·        Creation and updating a sound information base at village/ward, block/municipality and district levels giving land use, demographic, socio-economic, infrastructure, resource inventories of government agencies, NGOs, Public Sector Undertaking and Private organisations to be made and networked, to compile the information from various sources and bring it under one platform to support disaster management activities;

·        Link District, Block and GP Disaster Management Plans with the plans at the upper and lower levels. 

·        Conduct district, sub-division and community level regular mock drills

·        Generate coordination within Community, District and State level departments

·        Monitor and evaluate community (Residential colonies, schools, hospitals, institutions, business establishments ) level disaster management plans

·        Develop a status report of preparedness and mitigation activities under the plan

·        Allocate tasks to the different resource organizations and decisions making related to resource management

·        Review and update response strategy

·        Regular Supply of information to the state government

·        Training in disaster management and modernisation of equipments of Police and Fire Services, Civil Defence and Home Guards. Incorporation of Disaster Management as one of the main activities of youth organizations such as NYK, NCC, Boys Scouts, Girls Guides, National Service Schemes and local active interested clubs and their involvement;

·        Construction of emergency shelters, identification of buildings that could act as shelters and strengthening existing one, strengthening of public infrastructures, which are useful during emergencies;

·        Improvement of communication links, forecasting, and control rooms by modernizing the existing facilities.

·         A network of automatic weather stations (coverage area within 50Km. radius) shall be established for regular monitoring of Climatic data.

·        The water level of the different rivers at different locations must be done.

·        A network of groundwater level data recording.

·        Up-gradation and adequate network of rain gauge network, especially in known hazardous districts and locations;

·        Review of forecasting on floods & drought and its impact on agriculture.  Rigorous monitoring of drought conditions to be carried out at village level using network of automatic weather stations and satellite data;

·        Development of standard operational procedures(SOP), formats, checklists and field manuals;

·        Deployment of senior and experienced officials in limited geographic areas for overall control during disasters of rare severity;

·        Strengthening of all State and District level control rooms using the state of the art technology;

·        Deployment of interdisciplinary team comprising 200-300 persons under Special Relief Commissioner in the event of a major calamity, with similar measures at the District, Municipality and Block levels to be placed under the concerned official in charge of response coordination at various levels.  Setting up and regular training of Search and Rescue Teams, Disaster Medical Assistance Teams, Disaster Mortuary Assistance Teams, Specialised Operational Teams and Medical Assistance Teams at State and district levels. Further strengthening and reorientation of the Fire Services and Civil Defence Structures;

·        Development of minimum quality standards for relief and recovery operations;

·        Establishment of Help Lines during emergencies with modern communication facilities and tracing mechanism;

·        Protection of Human Rights especially during distribution of relief to victims;

·        Establishment of a Disaster Knowledge Network within the State and a Global Information Network;

·        Creating awareness among the Community through disaster education, training and information dissemination to empower them to effectively cope with hazards;

·        Incorporation of disaster management aspects in educational curricula from primary school level upwards and a focus on incorporating the same at engineering, technical institutes, architecture, development planning, medical colleges and promotion of special courses on disaster management;

·        Taking necessary measures to increase public participation and awareness and enrolment of trained volunteers for different response and recovery tasks;

·        Ensuring increasing involvement of NGOs, CBOs, Panchayat Raj Institutions, Municipal Councils, and Corporate Sector;

·        Encourage research and studies on disaster management issues, techniques and equipments.

(ii)       Commissionary Level

·        Preparation of appropriate GIS database and Digital Maps.

·        Drawing of blue print of action at the Gram. Panchayat., Block, Municipality, District and State levels showing identified agencies, resources and funds for carrying out the necessary exercise;

·        Use of the existing maps in 1: 50,000 and 1:25,000 scale and preparation of detailed large scale maps of 1: 10,000 scale, where necessary.

(iii)      District Level

·        Identification of hazard prone areas.

·        Synthesis of spatial and non-spatial information within the framework of a coherent and user-specific data model and linkages between different data sets with diverse information from a variety of sources;

·        Generation of spatial outputs with supportive tables/charts to help in development planning and decision making;

·        Promoting consciousness and adoption of Insurance and a culture of safety, to follow building codes, norms guidelines, quality materials in construction etc.

5.7       Facilities with EOC

Presently, the Emergency Operations Centres in districts and state are equipped with computer related facilities. In future, EOC would include a well-designed control room with workstation, wire-less communication, hotlines and intercoms etc. Following other facilities will be made available within the EOC.

            Common Facility

·        A databank of resources, action plans, state and district disaster management plans, community preparedness plans would be maintained at EOC

·         Maps indicating vulnerable areas, identified shelters, communication link system with state government and inter and intra district departments would strengthened

·        Inventory of manpower resources with address, telephone numbers of key contact persons has been maintained

·        EOC will have provision of desk arrangements in advance

·        Frequently required important phone numbers would be displayed on the walls so that they can be referred. Other phones and addresses would be kept under a easy retrieval and cross-referring system

·        Reconstruction/ Retrofitting of building will be done so that it can remain operational during disaster also.

·        EOC will be made operational for 24 hours with the help of Police, Fire and Home Guard Department.

5.7.1        Communication Room (Main Message Room)

The police wireless system should be in contact with EOC. In addition to that following    facilities would be available in the communication room:

·        Telephones, fax and intercoms units for contact within the Commissioner

·        Civil wireless network (up to tehsildar level-suggested)

·        One computer with internet and printer facility and photocopying machine

·        Help lines numbers will be setup for emergency related queries

5.7.2    Transport Facility

·        A jeep with wireless communication may be assigned to the EOC for normal times. Additional vehicles may be requisitioned during the emergency.

5.7.3    EOC Staffing/Manning

Manning of EOC is required for making EOC operational during and post disaster situation. In district there would be a need of keeping adequate staff. There is a need of regular staff, staff-on demand and staff-on disaster duty. Regular staff is required to manning communication room on 24 hours. Staff on call can be acquired immediately on requirement. Two officers of the rank of DC/ADM can be appointed during emergency. Staff on disaster duty can be appointed by Deputy Commissioner. This staff can be drawn from the various government departments.

5.7.4    Desk arrangement

In case of emergency Incident Commander/Deputy Commissioner and other team members would be present round the clock in the office in EOC. Senior officers should be appointed in the capacity of desk officers for maintaining coordination for Emergency support system.

 

S.No.

Support Functions

Supporting Dept./Agency

1.

Communication

BSNL/Media

2.

Evacuation

PAC/U.P. Police/ Homegaurd

3.

Search and Rescue

U.P. Fire Service

4.

Law & Order                                                                    

U.P. Police

5.

Medical Response and Trauma Counseling 

Directorate of Health-CDMO

6.

Water Supply & Sanitation                                                                  

U.P. Jal Nigam

7.

Relief (Food and Shelter)

Dept. of Revenue, Dept of Food and Civil Supplies & Dist. Administration

8.

Equipment Support, debris and road  Clearance

Municipal Corporations & PWD

9.

Help lines, warning dissemination

Department of Revenue

10.

Electricity

UPPCL

11.

Transport

Transport Department

5.8       Reliable Communication Systems

Uttar Pradesh has well-established communication system but yet a disaster like earthquakes & floods has witnessed partial or total collapse of general communication. System which delays flow of information from the disaster site consequently resulting delays in relief operations. Therefore, establishment of reliable communication also plays a very crucial role. Till now, Police Communication System has been found most suitable to rely upon. The plan also seeks for installation of satellite phones and HAM equipments in the EOC for strengthened communication

5.9       Preparation of a Response Plan

One of the important tasks during preparedness phase is formulation of a response plan. It basically helps in quick mobilization of manpower, resources and in performing various duties. The response plan explains a hierarchal system of Emergency Response Functions in terms of tasks and assigned responsibilities to different agencies. It also lay down an Incident Command System under the directions of District Magistrate of district or divisional Commissioner (depending upon the extent of disaster). A broad detail of response plan has been included in the Chapter-VI.

5.10     Training for Villager and Volunteers

Disaster Management is a multi-organizational effort requires training on execution and coordination related subjects. Therefore wide ranges of trainings related to management and planning skills are highly required for potential officers in order to equip them for specialized disaster-related tasks. Training requirements are likely to comprise of core activities of emergency management such as Incident Command System, Emergency Response Functions, basic management skills and specialized training on search and rescue, first aid etc. Persons to be trained shall be:

·        Government Officers at par with the rank requirement under Incident Command System

·        Team leaders and members of Emergency Support functions

·        Quick Response Teams at headquarter and field level

·        Community level taskforces including Volunteers, NGOs and Homeguards

·        School and college students, NCC and NSS scouts and NYKS etc

·        State Disaster Management Authority shall continue organizing several seminars and workshops with the help of various research institutions, Civil Defence and Home Guard, Fire fighting department, Health departments etc. A record of trained manpower shall be maintained by each department and their representation shall be noticed during mock-drill.

5.11     Community Awareness and Community Preparedness Planning

The hazard and risk analysis of the state indicates that there is a high need of community awareness through public awareness programmes on the following themes of disaster:

·        Types of disasters and basic do’s and don’ts.

·        Post disaster epidemic problems.

·        Construction and retrofitting techniques for disaster resistant buildings.

·        Communication of possible risk based vulnerable areas in the district.

·        Evacuation related schemes and community preparedness problems.

·        Non-structural mitigation measures.

Volunteers and social organizations shall also play a vital role in spreading mass scale community awareness. Media shall also play an important role in raising awareness and educating people.  Government shall develop large scale Information Communication and Education material in the form of booklets, handbooks, manuals, posters and flyers etc. These documents shall be distributed in all the offices, schools, institutions and residential colonies.

5.12     Capacity Building of Community Task forces

Emergency response is based on a set of arrangements, which are in position at all times. Accordingly, there is no need for activation of response. Agencies or strategies may be activated when a need is evident. However, to ensure effective, efficient, quick and coordinated response, the plan shall include dates of drills and practices for various emergencies and a review report on the efficiency and performance of such drills. Emergency response arrangements operate in respect of any emergency, no matter how small, in which more than one organization are involved. Under response arrangements, primary responsibility rests at the Block, Gram Panchayat or municipal levels. Support is then provided, if necessary, from the district or State levels.

5.13     Operational Co‑ordination

Response co‑ordinators are also responsible for initiating or continuing ancillary operations, which are necessary in the public or community interest. Emergency response plans also provide for the operation of state, district, block, Panchayat Samity or municipal emergency response co‑ordination centres, where response co-ordinators and liaison officers from control and support agencies will be located to receive, collate and disseminate intelligence, and coordinate the provision of resources.

5.14    Recovery

Recovery is defined “as assisting of persons and communities affected by emergencies to achieve a proper and effective level of functioning.” In the immediate aftermath of an emergency, and over the longer term, recovery is concerned with:

·        The physical aspects of restoration and reconstruction of damaged community infrastructure and private housing;

·        The economic aspect of restoration of productive activity and local employment;

·        The social, financial and psychological aspects of personal, family and community functioning. Recovery arrangements are designed to embody an enabling and supportive process that allows individuals, families and communities to move through the recovery process. This is achieved by the provision of information, specialist services and resources.

Recovery arrangements are designed to embody an enabling and supportive process that allows individuals, families and communities to move through the recovery process. This is achieved by the provision of information, specialist services and resources.

5.15     Planning

(a)       State

The State Emergency Recovery Planning Committee will be chaired by the State Recovery Co‑ordinator, and includes representatives from relevant organisations, including the Community Recovery Advisory Committee, which also brings together voluntary agencies and practitioners with involvement in recovery. The State Emergency Recovery Planning Committee will be responsible for:

·        Giving advice on policy and planning issues in relation to recovery;

·        Development of effective procedures for recovery co‑ordination;

·        Development and maintenance of the State Disaster Recovery Plan.

The State Emergency Recovery Plan will set out arrangements for co‑ordination of agencies involved in recovery, describe the management principles for recovery planning, outline the services which may be required in recovery situations, and provide information on the agencies involved in recovery. It will also establish a framework within which recovery agencies, regions and councils can prepare their own recovery plans.

(b)       District

The District Recovery Plan will be planned and managed within the district which will develop the district recovery plan, make arrangements for community recovery committees, ensure district co‑ordination of recovery planning and management; advise the Panchayat Samities, Blocks or municipal councils on the recovery component of their disaster management plans; and plays a part in auditing and updating those plans.

District recovery plans will set out agency responsibilities and co‑ordination arrangements applicable to each district, with specific resource listings and contact details.

(c)        Gram Panchayat/Municipal

Panchayat Samities/Blocks/ Gram Panchayats and Municipal disaster management planning committees shall incorporate recovery arrangements in their plans.

The recovery component of each Gram Panchayat, Panchayat Samity, block or municipal disaster management plan shall include similar material to the district recovery plan, specific to the local situation.

5.16     Operational Co‑ordination

Recovery will be managed at the level closest to that of the affected community, which may or may not be located within one panchayat samiti, block or municipality jurisdiction. Recovery activities will commence as soon as possible after the impact of an event, and initially operate concurrently with response activities.

Recovery will normally be managed at the gram panchayat, panchayat samiti, block or municipal levels by the concerned samiti or council, possibly with involvement of community recovery committees, which will integrate the work of the government and non-government agencies and take account of the needs of the community during the recovery process. A block, panchayat samiti or municipality council officer will normally chair these committees, with administrative support of the District Recovery Committee.

5.17     Community Awareness and Involvement

All disaster management agencies are responsible for informing, assisting and supporting the community in taking action to develop a safer environment, and, when necessary, dealing with emergencies in the absence of emergency personnel.

The role of the State Disaster Management Community awareness committee is to:

·        Contribute to raising community awareness about the State’s disaster management arrangements and fostering realistic expectations about assistance available during emergencies;

·        Encourage individual and community self-reliance before, during and after emergencies based on a realistic understanding of personal and community responsibilities and the capabilities of disaster management agencies;

·        Support the development and implementation of information management strategies which meet community needs for information before, during and after emergencies;

·        Provide a liaison forum for and support the activities of emergency management agencies in co‑ordinating and disseminating information to the community before, during and after emergencies.

The Government will appoint the chairman and  members of the committee on the basis of their experience and expertise in the field of disaster management and community mobilisation.

5.18     Special Management Arrangements during Emergencies

The existing laws and present arrangements provide specific emergency powers, which can be applied when the circumstances require. Special declarations are not required for standard emergency operations.

5.19     Emergency Situations

In some emergency situations, police may need to restrain people from participating in day-to-day activities if their presence is dangerous or undesirable. A chemical spill or a gas leak, for example, may involve a hazard that can be extremely dangerous for an untrained and/or ill-equipped person.

5.20     National Centre for Disaster Management (NCDM)

Government of India Agency, the National Centre for Disaster Management, is a Resource Agency, which assists national and state governments in formulation of disaster management plans and policies. The State Government can solicit advise from NCDM on disaster management arrangements and procedures, through:

·        Development of joint policies;

·        Advancement of nationwide capability for the management of emergencies/disasters;

·        Identification of national/multi-state needs and formulation of strategies to meet those needs;

·        Provision of strategic guidance on national disaster management training needs and implementation strategies;

·        Provision of civil defense policy guidance;

·        Provision of advice to the Ministry of Home on the effectiveness of, or need for changes to the existing support programs.

5.21     Uttar Pradesh State Disaster Management Authority (UPSDMA)

At the State level, the UPSDMA will have a number of advisory groups to focus on specific issues to strengthen the disaster management systems and capacities of all departments and agencies working at the State and district levels:

·        Planning, evaluation and monitoring

·        Communications and information

·        Training, education curriculum and materials development

·        Media

·        Community awareness and planning activity

5.22     Supporting Arrangements

Disaster management planning, its monitoring and implementation at the State and district, block, municipality and gram panchayat levels will be strengthened and augmented, through:

·        Preparation of appropriate GIS database and Digital Maps.

·        Drawing of blue print of action at the G.P., Block, Municipality, District and State levels. Showing identified agencies, resources and funds for carrying out the necessary exercise;

·        Use of the existing maps on 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 scale and preparation of detailed large scale maps of 1: 10,000 scale, where necessary;

·        Preparation of topographic maps of hazardous areas on a priority basis;

·        Flood hazard-zonation of all major cities, urban and industrial centres, other vital installations like dams, embankments  and other  infrastructure along with district, municipality and block hazard zonation maps of all identified hazards;

·        Groundwater potential and surface water bodies map for drought mitigation and geophysical groundwater reservoirs;

·        Using existing or develop new tools for accurate forecasting;

·        Synthesis of spatial and non-spatial information within the framework of a coherent and user-specific data model and linkages between different data sets with diverse information from a variety of sources;

·        Generation of spatial outputs with supportive tables/charts to help in development planning and decision making;

·        Integration of conventional forecasting with the latest state of art technologies & equipments, Automatic Weather Station, remote sensing, Data Collection Platforms and GIS;

5.23     Simulation Exercises

To encourage participation in a coordinated manner simulation exercises on various disasters are very important. These exercises help in institutional building at various levels. Mock-exercises shall be promoted at state, district and community level. Those community members have completed their disaster management plans and have constituted several taskforces shall conduct regular mock-drills. At least two mock-drill shall be conducted by community representatives to improve and update plan.

5.24     Weather Forecast

There are three types of Weather Forecast

1.

Short Range                               

Valid upto 2 day. useful in day to day agricultural operations.

2.

Medium range

Valid for 3-10 days more useful in agricultural operations. Particularly for drought management.

3.

Long range

Valid for month or season useful for disaster management due to floods or droughts.

5.25     Others

Fodder Management in dry areas

·        Cropping system

·        Intercropping

·        Sequential cropping

·        Rationing

·        Selection of crops and variations

Pattern of land use that is different from the existing or conventional

·        Aim of the System

·        Optimize resource base

·        Conserve the quality of resource

·        Integrate crops and livestock

·        Make agriculture less dependent on off-farm inputs

·        Extend employment potential

·        Improve overall quality of farm-life

Alternate land use system

·        Agro forestry

·        Agrisylviculture

·        Sylvipasture

·        Alley cropping

·        Agri horticulture

·        Social forestry

·        Tree farming

·        Ley farming

Resource Management

·        Rainwater harvesting:

·        Catchment to induce runoff

·        Ponds to collect runoff

·        Rainwater conservation:

·        Improved water retention (pond sediment)

·        Subsurface barrier to prevent percolation

·        BBF: 100 cm broad bed alternated with 50 cm furrow(15 cm deep)

·        Mulching to prevent evaporation losses

Fertility Management

·        Early development of crop cover

·        Deep root development

·        Water use may increase marginally

·        High WUE

·        High plant vigour


 

CHAPTER - VI

RESPONSE PLANS

6.0       The response plan has been subdivided into the following sections-

(a).    Response Management Arrangements

(b).   State Disaster Response Plan

(c).    Emergency Support Functions

6.1       Response Management Arrangements

The response management task is to optimise the outputs, given the resource constraints.  Response management is based on the three key management tasks of command, control and coordination. These roles and responsibilities are defined as follows:

6.1.1    Command

Command depicts the hierarchical managerial order.  It elucidates the type and amount of resources that would be handled at different levels in the performance of that organisation’s roles and tasks. Command structure will be decided as per the rules within an agency/department.

6.1.2    Control

Control provides the direction for best possible utilisation of resources and most advantageous deployment of manpower.  Control system will be developed on the basis of laid down policy of the Govt.

6.1.2.1        Control and Support Agencies

An Emergency response agency will be designated, either as a control agency or a support agency, depending upon the circumstances and the magnitude of the disaster.

(a)       Control Agency

A control agency is defined as the response agency nominated to control the response activities for a specified type of emergency. During the course of response the control agency will be changed according to the needs at the time and situation.  The co‑ordinator will have the authority to nominate one of the response agencies to act as Control agency.


 

(b)       Support Agency

A support agency is defined as a government or non-government agency, which provides essential services, personnel, or material to support or assist a control or another support agency or persons affected by an emergency, support agencies like RSAC-UP, Minor irrigation and UP Jal Nigam in case of drought.

6.1.3    Coordination

Coordination involves the bringing together of agencies and elements to ensure effective response to emergencies. It is primarily concerned with the systematic acquisition and application of resources (agencies, personnel and equipment) in accordance with the requirements imposed by emergencies. Co‑ordination aims at bringing out synergy in operation. The command, control and co‑ordination functions are demonstrated in the Figure given below.

6.1.4    Incident Controller

Incident Controller is the officer with overall responsibility for emergency response operations. The incident controller will normally be appointed by the control agency, but can also be appointed by the SRC or DRC (the District Collector) if the circumstances so require.

6.1.5    Emergency Management Team (EMT)

The emergency management team will consist of the incident controller, the support agency commanders (or their representatives) and the emergency response co‑ordinator (or representative). The EMT exists when two or more agencies combine or work in co‑operation to respond to an emergency.

Once the control strategy has been determined by the incident controller (in consultation with support agency commanders), the commanders implement the strategy through their respective command structures. The emergency response co‑ordinator’s role in the team is to ensure a co‑ordinated multi-agency response, and to provide for the systematic acquisition and utilization of the required resources.

6.1.6    Incident Management System (IMS)

This is a system used by the EMT in fulfilling its role. An IMS lays down a set of flexible set of rules and a dynamic methodology, which can accommodate escalation or changes in the severity of any emergency. The system will be established by the control agency and will involve use of personnel for the various functions which may need to be individually managed in dealing with the event, such as operations, planning, logistics (in conjunction with the emergency response co‑ordinator), finance and administration. Each response agency will draw up an operational management system to assist in carrying out its role. The important aspect is that they all provide an effective interface between co‑operating agencies, when necessary.

6.1.7    Co‑ordination Role of the State Relief Commissioner & District Collector

The responsibilities of the SRC and the District Collectors for emergency response co‑ordination are spelt in Relief Code. Emergency response co‑ordinators will be responsible for ensuring the co‑ordination of the activities of agencies having roles or responsibilities in response to emergencies, with the exception of emergencies involving defence force vessels or aircraft.

6.1.7.1 Principal Role of Emergency Response Co‑ordinators (SRC & DRC)

            The principal role of emergency response co‑ordinators is to:

·        Ensure that the appropriate control and support agencies have been identified and will be responding for the emergency management;

·        Ensure that effective control has been established in responding to an emergency;

·        Ensure effective co‑ordination of resources and services;

·        In the event of uncertainty, determine which agency is to perform its statutory response role within a district or other specified area, where more than one agency is empowered to perform that role;

·        Arrange for the provision of resources requested by control and support agencies;

·        Review and dispatch situation reports;

·        Ensure that consideration has been given to:

·        Alerting the public to existing and potential dangers arising from a serious emergency direct or through the media;

·        Any need for evacuation.

·        Advise recovery agencies of the emergency.

6.1.7.2  Field emergency response co‑ordinator

The field emergency response co‑ordinator will be an experienced person designated by SRC, DRC, BDO, etc. at the scene of an emergency. The response roles, responsibilities and duties of the field emergency response co‑ordinator are to:

·        Ensure that the necessary control and support agencies are in position or have been notified of the emergency and are responding.

·        Liaise with all agencies at scene.

·        Ensure an incident controller has been identified, and liaise directly with that person, in order to be satisfied that the emergency is being responded to efficiently and effectively.

·        Arrange for meeting the requests for provision of resources to the control/support agencies.

·        Ensure provision of available resources from within the Gram Panchayat, Block, Municipality District; or mobilise additional resources through the Gram Panchayat, Block, Municipality, District emergency response co‑ordinators.

·        Provide situation reports to the Block, Municipality and District emergency response co‑ordinators.

Ensure that consideration has been given to:

·        Alerting the public to existing and potential dangers arising from a serious emergency;

·        The need for evacuation; Public information; Advise recovery agencies of the emergency situation.

·        Traffic management, including access/progress for emergency response vehicles.

·        Make necessary arrangements at the scene for media in accordance with direction from the incident controller.

6.2       Uttar Pradesh State Disaster (Drought) Response plans at different levels

(a)       State

The State Emergency Response Plan sets out the roles and responsibilities of the agencies involved in emergency response, and establishes the response co‑ordination arrangements. The response plan does not contain detailed plans of action, and these will be prepared by the respective departments/ agencies.

Most key departments/agencies, or sections of organisations, have roles in the response plan. In addition, many other organisations (including Panchayat Samities/block/municipal councils) can be called upon to assist the control agencies in the response to specific events. Prior arrangements and selections will be made to nominate senior officials from the State level to coordinate the response arrangements in a restricted geographical area in case of a calamity of high intensity. The list of addresses, phone numbers, fax, etc. of concerned official and agencies will be updated annually within May. Prior response and coordination arrangements will also be made to identify neighboring district(s) when one district is severely affected while the neighboring districts are not.

(b)       District

Each district response plan sets out the roles and responsibilities of response organisations within the district, documents co‑ordination arrangements, and lists contact details for all agencies and the resources they can provide. It also provides for the co‑ordination of support from within and outside the district.

(c)        Gram Panchayat/Block/Municipal

The response component of each Panchayat Samity/Block or municipal disaster management plan will include similar details as in the district response plan, while taking local conditions and resources into account.

6.2.1    Incident Command System (ICS)

ICS is an effective model for centralized management. It can clearly define staff roles and responsibilities and lines of communications. In the ICS model the base of operations for response to a disaster (incident) is the Command centre.

6.2.2    Incident Command

Incident Command Upon activation of the Plan, the Incident Commander will establish the Command Centre and initiate ICS. The layout of the Incident Command System with concerned staff is given in the chart below:

6.2.2.1 Responsibilities for Incident Action Planning

On small incidents, the Incident Commander is responsible for developing the Incident Action Plan.  The IC may have assistance to help collect or obtain information, but the IC has sole responsibility for determining the Incident Objectives, strategy, tactical operations, and resource assignments.

On larger incidents, and as part of the overall planning process, other ICS organizational positions are responsible for contributing information to the Incident Action Plan.

6.2.2.2 The Planning Process

The Planning Section Chief has the responsibility to conduct the planning meetings.  The planning process outlined below will, if followed, provide a logical set of steps to follow.  This process only works however, if everyone involved comes to the planning meeting well prepared, and understands the process. The time required for development of a plan will vary depending on the kind of incident and agencies involved.

The actual time committed to the activity may only be a few minutes when there are just a few resources involved. On very large incidents, the planning cycle will be longer. 

It is important that prior to the planning meeting, interagency negotiations on the use of resources, strategies, and cost issues have been discussed and resolved by the Incident Commander or the Unified Command. 

A major criticism of planning meetings is that they tend to “drag on” and consume valuable time.  The Planning Section Chief can help to ensure that planning meetings are only as long as necessary by close adherence to the following:

·        All participants must come prepared.

·        Strong leadership must be evident.

·        Agency Representatives must be able to commit for their agencies.

·        All participants adhere to the planning process.

·        No radios, cellular phones at planning meetings.

An Operational Planning Worksheet (ICS Form 215) is intended to be used in the incident planning meeting to develop tactical assignments and resources needed to achieve incident objectives and strategies.  This form is often enlarged and attached or drawn onto a white board or chalkboard. The form brings together information on resources required and resources available for specific work assignments.  It also provides a written designation of reporting locations.

At the end of the planning meeting, the ICS Form 215 is used to prepare the off-incident tactical resource order.

ICS Form 220 - Air Operations Summary         

For those incidents which have a significant amount of aviation resources assigned, the Air Operations Summary provides information related to numbers and types of aircraft and tactical assignments.

6.2.2.3 Implementation of the Plan

On small incidents, the Incident Commander has the full responsibility for the implementation of the Plan.  If there is no written Incident Action Plan, the IC will provide verbal instructions to subordinates.  The ICS Form 201 Briefing Form can provide a useful framework for a briefing when a written Action Plan is not required. Larger incidents will require a written action plan.  Each of the General Staff will assume responsibility for implementing their respective portions of the Plan.

6.2.3    Incident Command Post

The Incident Command Post (ICP) is the location at which the primary command functions are performed.  The Incident Commander will be located at the ICP.  All incidents must have a designated location for the Incident Command Post (ICP).  There will only be one ICP for each incident.  This also applies on multi-agency or multi jurisdictional incidents operating under a single or a unified command. The ICP can be located with other incident facilities. Initial location for the ICP should consider the nature of the incident, whether it is growing or moving, and whether the ICP location will be suitable in size and safe for the expected duration of the incident. The ICP may be located in a vehicle, trailer, tent, or within a building, to name just a few examples         

·        Larger and more complex incidents will often require larger ICP facilities.  Examples of incidents that usually require an expanded ICP facility include:

·        Multi-agency incidents run under a Unified Command                                       

·        Long-term incidents.

·        Incidents requiring an on- center scene communications.

·        Incidents requiring a separate planning function

·        Incidents requiring the use of Command Staff and Agency

·        Representative positions

ICPs will be designated by the name of the incident, e.g., Woodstock ICP. Some incidents may be large enough to have an on-site communications center to dispatch assigned resources.  The communications center is often associated with or adjacent to the ICP.  Also, some incidents will require space at the ICP to allow for various Command Staff and Planning Section functions.

6.2.3.1 Characteristics of the ICP

The following are some general characteristics of the ICP that should be known and understood:

·        There is only one ICP per incident, even if the incident is multi-jurisdictional.          

·        The incident communications center, if established at an incident, is often located with or adjacent to the ICP.     

·        The Incident Command function is carried out at the ICP.          

·        The ICP may be located with other incident facilities such as the Incident Base.        

·        The planning function is normally done at the ICP.

·        The ICP should be large enough to provide adequate working room forssigned personnel.

·        The ICP should contain situation and resource status displays necessary for the incident, and other information necessary for planning purposes.        

·        Agency Representatives are normally located at the ICP.

·        Once established, the ICP will normally not be relocated.

NOTE:  that on expanding incidents it would be appropriate to move the ICP if an improved location is required or would facilitate command operations.           

6.2.3.2 Establishing the ICP  

The following are general guidelines to be used in establishing the ICP:

·        Position away from the general noise and confusion associated with the incident.    

·        Position outside of the present and potential hazard zone.         

·        Position within view of the incident (when appropriate).

·        Have the ability to expand as the incident grows. 

·        Have the ability to provide security, and to control access to the ICP as necessary.  

·        Identify location with distinctive banner or sign.  

·        Announce ICP activation and location via radio or other communication so all appropriate personnel are notified.

6.2.4    Staging Areas

·        A Staging Area is a temporary location at an incident where personnel and equipment are kept while awaiting tactical assignments.

·        Staging Areas should be located within five minutes travel time to the area of expected need.

·        An incident may have more than one Staging Area.         

·        Staging Areas can be set up to meet specific functional needs.  For example:  for ambulances, fire equipment, police cars, etc.

·        In locations where major incidents are known to occur frequently, it is advisable to designate possible Staging Area locations, and to plan their layouts in advance.

·        Resources in a Staging Area are always in or on an available status, which means they are ready for assignment within three minutes.  This is an important consideration for resource use planning and should be closely adhered to.    

·        Staging Areas may include temporary fueling and sanitation facilities.

·        All Staging Areas will have a Staging Area Manager.       

·        Staging Areas will be given a name which describes their general location, e.g., Golghar Staging Area.   

·        The Staging Area Manager reports to the Operations Section Chief, or to the Incident Commander if an Operations Section has not been established.

·        A Staging Area may be in the same general area or adjacent to other incident facilities; however, it should have its own separate location and name.     

·        Some incidents may use the Staging Area(s) for only certain kinds of resources.  For example, all police vehicles or all ambulances may be located in one Staging Area.  A Staging Area could be established in a Kuriyaghat location for boats used in a water incident.

6.2.4.1 General Characteristics of Staging Areas       

Staging Areas should:

·        Be close to the location of tactical assignments (within five minutes). 

·        Be located out of any possible line of direct hazard effects to minimize risk. 

·        Be relocated if necessary.     

·        Have different access routes for incoming and outgoing resources.      

·        Be large enough to accommodate available resources and have room for growth.

·        Be clearly marked.      

·        Be located to minimize environmental damage.    

·        Have necessary security controls.   

6.2.4.2 Benefits of Using Staging Areas   

Listed below are several benefits from the use of Staging Areas at an incident which may be able to add additional benefits.

Staging Areas

·        provide locations for immediately available resources to await active assignments. 

·        Provide locations to allow resources to be formed into operational units such as task forces and strike teams.         

·        Provide for greater accountability by having available personnel and resources together in one location.    

·        Provide safe locations for personnel and equipment to await assignments.     

·        Prevent resources from freelancing or “doing their own thing.”

·        Minimize excessive communications of resources calling for assignments.    

·        Control and assist the check-in of personnel who arrive at the incident via privately owned vehicles or other private means.      

·        Allow the Operations Section Chief or IC to properly plan for resource use, and to provide for contingencies. 

6.2.4.3 Others

(i) Incident Base 

An Incident Base will be established on some incidents.

·        All primary services and support activity for the incident are usually located and performed from the Base. 

·        The Logistics Section will be located at the Base. 

·        Normally, the Incident Base is the location where all uncommitted (out-of-service) equipment and personnel support operations are located.      

·        Tactical resources assigned to the Incident Base will normally be out-of-service.     

·        There should be only one Base established for each incident, and normally the Base will not be relocated.    

·        The Base will be designated by incident name, e.g., Midway Base.       

·        In locations where major incidents are known to occur frequently, it is advisable to pre-designate possible Base locations, and to plan their layouts in advance.         

·        The management of the Base comes under the Logistics Section.  If an Incident Base is established, a Base Manager will be designated.  The Base Manager in a fully activated ICS organization will be in the Facilities Unit of the Logistics Section.

(ii)       Camps     

Camps are temporary locations within the general incident area which are equipped and staffed to provide sleeping, food, water, and sanitary services to incident personnel.        

·        Camps are separate facilities, and are not located at the Incident Base.

·        Camps may be in place for several days, and they may be moved depending upon incident needs.    

·        Very large incidents may have one or more Camps located in strategic areas.  For example, in a civil disturbance incident there may be several camps designated where National Guard personnel and equipment are temporarily located.           

·        All ICS functional unit activities performed at the Base may also be performed at Camps.  

·        Each Camp will have a Camp Manager assigned.  

·        Camp Managers are responsible for managing the camp, and for providing non-technical coordination of all organizational units operating within the Camp.     

·        Camp Managers will report to the Facilities Unit Leader in the Logistics Section.  If that position has not been activated, the Camp Manager would report to the Logistics Section Chief.    

·        Initially, personnel requirements for Logistics Section units located at Camps will be determined by the Incident General Staff, based on the kind and size of the incident and expected duration of Camp operations.      

·        After a camp is established, additional personnel and support needs would normally be determined and ordered by the Camp Manager.

·        If logistics units are established at Camps, they would be managed by assistants.

·        Camps are designated by a geographic name or by a number.

(iii)      Helibase         

Helibases and Helispots serve somewhat different purposes at an incident. A Helibase is the main location within the general incident area for parking, fueling,    maintenance, and loading of helicopters.           

·        The Helibase is often located at or near the incident base.  However,  an incident Helibase can also be located at a nearby airport, or at another off-incident location.

·        A Helibase will be used to load helicopters with personnel, equipment, and supplies necessary for incident operations.         

·        The incident Helibase will be designated by the name of the incident, e.g., Presidio Helibase.   

·        Large incidents could have more than one Helibase.  For example, a second Helibase would be called Presidio Helibase #2.  

·        Helibases will normally not be moved.       

·        The Helibase will be managed by a Helibase Manager.   

·        The Helibase Manager will report to the Air Support Group Supervisor in the Air Operations organization if that position has been activated. 

·        If not, the Helibase Manager reports to either the Air Operations Branch Director (if activated) or to the Operations Section Chief.  

(iv)      Helispots 

Helispots are temporary locations in the incident area where helicopters can safely land and take off.     

·        Helispots can be used to load or off-load personnel, equipment, supplies, water, etc.           

·        Helispots will be managed by Helispot Managers who will function on the ground at the Helispot.

·        The Helispot Manager will report to the Helibase Manager.       

·        If an incident has no established air operations organization but does have one or more Helispots designated, the Helispot Managers will report to the Operations Section Chief.   

·        Several ICS facilities may be collocated at an incident.

 

6.2.5    Options for Using Resources on an Incident

There are three ways of using resources at an incident:        

1.         As Single Resources

2.         As Task Forces

3.         As Strike Teams     

Each of these has certain features: 

(i)        Single Resources

Single Resources are individual pieces of equipment, or a crew of individuals, with an identified work supervisor that can be used in a tactical application on an incident. A Single Resource is often the most common way of initially using resources on an incident. Single Resources can be typed to reflect capability.  Unless a Single Resource is typed, its specific resource capabilities may not be clear to everyone. Examples of Single Resources:          

KIND                                         TYPE

Police Motorcycle Unit                *

Fire Engine Company                   1

Medical team                                  *

Helicopter                                       2

Search and Rescue Unit                2

Typing of resources other than fire has not been done on a broad scale.

(ii)       Task Forces

Task Forces are any combination and number of single resources (within span of control limits) assembled for a particular tactical need.  Task forces may be a mix of all different kinds of resources, be of the same kind but different types, or be several resources of one kind mixed with other resources.  We will look at some examples in a moment. Requirements of a Task Force are:

·        Must have a leader.    

·        Must have communication between resources and the leader, and from the leader to the next level supervisor.         

·        Must have transportation as required.         

·        Must be within span of control limits.

Task Forces are very flexible in their makeup with no limitations other than span of control.  Listed below, are some examples of how agencies use Task Forces. Examples of Task Forces;

1.

Public Works Task Force

Two Bulldozers

Two Dump Trucks

2.

Search and Rescue Task Force

One Helicopter

One Alpine S&R Team

One Medical Technician

3.

Oil Spill Task Force

Five Berthing/food ships

Ten Work Boats

One Tank Barge

Four Skimmer Vessels

4.

Law Enforcement Task Force

One Swat Team

One K-9 Team

One Fire Engine

One Ambulance

5.

Multi-agency Task Force

Five Officers

Five Engines

Three Medical Units

6.

 

 

 


 

iii)       Strike Teams

Requirements of an ICS Strike Team:

·        All resources must be of the same kind and type.

·        Must have a leader.

·        Must have communications between resources and the leader.

·        Must have transportation (as required).

·        Must operate within span of control limits.

Example of standardized ICS Strike Teams         

·        Five Type 1 Fire Engines or

·        Two Type 2 Bulldozers

·        Two Type 1 Handcrews

Strike Teams have proven to be very valuable for use in large wildland fire incidents.  In those kinds of incidents Strike Teams are regularly used for managing engines, hand crews, and bulldozers. 

(iv)      Management of Task Forces and Strike Teams

A requirement for all Task Forces and Strike Teams is that they must have a leader and common communications. Depending upon the level of organization established for the incident, Task Force and Strike Team Leaders will report to the Incident Commander, the Operations Section Chief, or to a Division or Group Supervisor.

(v)       Advantages of Task Forces and Strike Teams

There are at least five advantages of using Task Forces and Strike Teams:

1.         Enables more effective resource use planning.

2.         Provides an effective way of quickly ordering just what is necessary.       

3.         Reduces radio traffic by communications going to a task force or strike team leader, rather than to each single resource.      

4.         Increases the ability to expand the organization for large incident operations while maintaining good span of control.         

5.         Provides close resource control and accountability.


 

6.2.6    Demobilizing Resources      

At all times during an incident, the Incident Commander and General and Command Staff members must determine when assigned resources are no longer required to meet incident objectives. Excess resources must be released in a timely manner to reduce incident-related costs, and to “free up” resources for other assignments

(i)            Evaluation of the Plan

The planning process must include a way to provide for ongoing evaluation of the Plan’s effectiveness.  It is not enough to simply complete the Plan and implement it.  Three steps to accomplish evaluation are as follows:

1.         Prior to the Incident Commander approving the Plan for release, the General Staff should review the Plan’s contents to ensure that it accurately reflects the current situation.  This is done in recognition of the fact that some time may have elapsed between plan development and release. 

2.         During the Operational Period, the Incident Commander, the Planning and Operations Section Chiefs should regularly assess work progress against the control operations called for in the Plan.  If deficiencies are found, improved direction or additional staffing may be required, tactical operations may need to be modified, and/or changes may need to be reflected in the planning for the next Operational Period.

3.         The Operations Section Chief may make expedient changes to tactical operations called for in the Incident Action Plan if necessary to better accomplish an objective.

(ii)       The Process of Demobilization

On single agency and/or smaller incidents, the planning and the process of demobilization may be quite simple and will not require a formal written demobilization plan or a Demobilization Unit to prepare it. On large incidents, especially those which may have personnel and tactical resources from several jurisdictions or agencies, and where there has been a good integration of multijurisdiction or agency personnel into the incident organization, a Demobilization Unit within the Planning Section should be established early in the life of the incident.  A written demobilization plan is an essential on larger incidents.

In order to determine excess resources and begin the demobilization process, it will be necessary for each part of the ICS organization to evaluate the continuing need for both personnel and tactical resources. Agencies will differ in how they establish release priorities for resources assigned to an incident.  Also, the process for demobilization of resources from an incident will vary by application area.  Participants at an incident should expect to see and accept differences as reflected by agency policy.

(iii)      Importance of Demobilization Planning

Planning for incident demobilization is often overlooked.  As incidents begin to wind down, everyone will be anxious to leave the scene of the incident and return to their home agency as soon as possible.  Demobilization planning helps to assure a controlled, safe, efficient, and cost- effective demobilization process. For that reason, early ICS development included a Demobilization Unit in the Planning Section. On smaller incidents, with only a few tactical resources assigned and with only a partial ICS organization in place, demobilization planning is relatively simple and may not require a written plan. Larger incidents, particularly those with multi-agency involvement, must have adequate demobilization planning. The Planning Section Chief must establish an adequate demobilization organization in plenty of time to provide for an orderly and efficient demobilization. Resources must be released and returned to their home units as soon as possible to minimize cost, maintain high morale, and to be ready for other assignments.

(iv)      Demobilization Planning              

The Demobilization Plan should contain the following sections:

1.         General Information - (discussion of demo procedure)

2.         Responsibilities

3.         Release Priorities

Priorities will vary and must be determined at the time.

Examples of release priorities related to tactical resources could be:

a. Priority 1 - Type 1 Resources

b. Priority 2 - Resources traveling the farthest

4.         Release Procedures

5.         Directory (maps, telephone listings, etc.)

 

Demobilization Planning can be quite complex, especially on a large multi-agency incident.  Considerable guidance for demobilization planning has been prepared and is available for students interested in obtaining more detail. To be effective, demobilization planning must begin early in the incident.  That is why a separate unit with no other incident responsibility has been established within ICS. Many elements of information must be gathered to help in the demobilization planning effort.  Each section of the ICS organization must be involved.

Release priorities must first be determined by all elements of the organization.  This is essentially a decision on what resources must be retained, and what resources can be made available for release.  This determination can only be made after a full understanding of the longer-term incident needs. 

(v)       Important elements of information needed for demobilization planning are summarized as follows:

1.         Planning Section - Has basic information on resources. (Check-in lists and Incident Form 201 Briefing Form are important to this effort.)

·        Liaison Officer - Knows terms of agreements involving use and release of other agency’s resources.

·        Safety Officer - Considers physical condition of personnel, personal needs, and adequacy of transportation.

2.         Logistics Section - Handles transportation availability, communications, maintenance, and continuing support.

3.         Operations Section - Knows continuing needs for various kinds of tactical resources. 

4.         Finance/Administration Section- Processes any claims, time records, and costs of individual resources which are a factor in determining release.

·        Agency dispatch centers - Give high priority to timely return of resources.

(vi)      Incident Action Plan Development

Using the disaster scenario, conduct a planning meeting and develop the basic contents of an incident action plan. Use the ICS Form 201 and objectives which were developed earlier. 

Exercise Plan

The best way to understand the planning process is to do it.  This next section will be an exercise to work through the planning process, and to develop the basic contents of an Incident Action Plan. 

The scenario for this exercise is the same scenario used earlier to develop Incident Objectives. A resource list accompanies this scenario.   Resources on scene are also shown. You may add or change resources to the attached listing if you desire. 

(vii)     Staffing

Staffing will be tailored to class size.  (Command and General Staff positions should be the first to be filled.)  If there are additional personnel, fill with other positions.  Depending on class size, all positions may or may not be filled.

·        Incident Commander

·        Operations Section Chief

·        Planning Section Chief

 

 

6.2.7    Key Resource Management Considerations   

Safety, personnel accountability, managerial control, adequate reserves, and cost are all key considerations that must be taken into account when managing incident resources.


 

(i)       Safety

A basic principle of resource management is that resource actions at all levels of the organization must be conducted in a safe manner. This includes ensuring the safety of:

1.         Responders to the incident.

2.         Persons injured or threatened by the incident.

3.         Volunteers assisting at the incident.

4.         News media and the general public who are on scene observing the incident.

Current laws, liability issues, and future trends will continue to place additional emphasis on personnel safety.

(ii)       Personnel Accountability

The ICS provides a unity of command structure, which allows supervisors at every level to know exactly who is assigned and where they are assigned.  If the management process is followed, and the principles of ICS maintained, all resources will be fully accounted for at all times.

(iii)      Managerial Control

ICS has a built-in process which allows resource managers at all levels to constantly assess performance and the adequacy of current action plans.  Strategies and actions to achieve objectives can and must be modified at any time if necessary.  Information exchange is encouraged across the organization.  Direction is always through the chain of command.

(iv)      Adequate Reserves

Assignment of resources to the Incident Base, camps, and staging areas provides the means to maintain adequate reserves.  Reserves can always be increased or decreased in Staging Areas to meet anticipated demands.

(v)     Cost

Incident-related costs must always be a major consideration. The Incident Commander must  ensure that objectives are being achieved through cost-effective strategy selection, and selection of the right kind and right number of resources.

The Finance/Administration Section’s Cost Unit has the responsibility to:

·        Obtain and record all cost information

·        Prepare incident cost summaries

·        Prepare resource use cost estimates for planning

·        Make recommendations for cost savings

The Cost Unit can assist the Incident Commander in ensuring a cost-effective approach to incident resource management, and should be activated on any large or prolonged incident.  Resource managers must be constantly aware that the decisions they make regarding the use of personnel and equipment resources will not only affect the timely and satisfactory conclusion of the incident, but also may have significant cost implications.

6.2.8    Planning Meeting Activity Checklist

No.

Activity

Primary Responsibility

   1

Give a resource and situation briefing on current status

Planning Section Chief

2

Set incident objectives

Incident Commander

3

Designate geographic boundaries and identify functional groups

Operations Section Chief

4

Determine tactical assignments by division/group

Operations Section Chief, Safety Officer

5

Specify resources needed by division/group

Operations Section Chief, Planning Section Chief

6

Specify incident facilities and reporting locations and plot on map

Operations Section Chief, Planning Section Chief, Safety Officer

7

Consider incident management team needs for communications, safety, and transportation

Logistics Section Chief, Planning Section Chief, Safety Officer

8

Place resource order for additional needs 

Logistics Section Chief

9

Finalize incident action plan (all forms)

All

10

Approve and implement the incident action plan.

Incident Commander, Operations Section Chief

Table-A

No.

Service Function

Primary Agency

Support Agencies

1

Communication

Special Relief Commissioner

·         IMD

·         Doordarshan

·         All India Radio

·         Department of Telecommunication

·         S.P. Signals

·         Department of Science & Technology

·         Department of Fisheries & Animal Husbandry

·         Department of Energy

·         Department of Agriculture

·         Ministry of Civil Aviation

2

Public Health and Sanitation/ Animal Health

Departments of Health and Family Welfare/ Animal Resource Development

·         RWSS

·         PHD

·         Home Department

·         Department of Energy

·         Health NGOs

·         Department of Transport

3

Transport

Commerce & Transport Department

·         Home Department

·         Works Department

·         Revenue Department

·         Ministry of Civil Aviation

·         Railways

·         Dept. Telecommunication

·         Army

4

Power

Department of Energy

·         Subsidiary Companies

·         Army

·         Department of commerce & Transport

5

Search and Rescue

Home Department

·         Fire brigade

·         Civil Defence

·         Army

·         Department of Transport

·         Department of Health and Family welfare

·         NGOs

6

Public Works and Engineering

Rural Development/ Public Works Dept.

·         Water Resource

·         Panchayat Raj Department

7

Relief Supplies

Revenue Department

·         SRC

·         District Administration

·         Department of Transport

·         Food & Civil Supplies Department

·         NGOs

8

Information and Planning

UPSDMA

·         Department of Science and Technology

·         UPRSAC

·         NGOs

9

Food

Civil Supply

·         District Administration

·         Ministry of Transport

·         Railways

10

Drinking Water

RWSS/PHD

·         Health and Family Welfare Dept.

·         NGOs

11

Shelter

UPSDMA

·         Revenue Department

·         Department of energy

·         RWSS/PHD

·         NGOs

12

Media

Dept. of Information and Public Relations

·         Department of Agriculture

·         Department of Health and Family Welfare

·         UPSDMA

13

Help Line

UPSDMA

·         Department of Health and Family Welfare

·         Police

 

Table-B

 

No

Activities on receipt of warning

Responsibility

1

·         Tracking and issuing of forewarning of impending disasters

·         Establishment of radio communication with the District, Block and affected areas

·         Designation of a nodal officer

·         Review of existing precautionary measure to be taken to protect equipments

·         Designing an emergency tool kit

·         Identification of functional telecommunication facilities in the area

·         Establishment of emergency operation centres at the affected areas

·         Provision of temporary communication facilities to vital installations

·         Damage assessment

·         Opening of temporary facilities for public use

·         Tracking and issuing warning to public about impending disasters

·         Ensuring two way telecommunication link from State to District, blocks, and affected site

·         Establishment of temporary communica-tion in the affected area

2

·         Designation of a nodal officer

·         Assessment of injuries, illnesses, drugs another medical items and medicines

·         Ensuring supply of essential medicines and medical items

·         Dissemination of informa-tion to all hospitals in the affected area to gear up to the task of receiving large number of patients

·         Meet medical and sanitation requirements of affected people

·         Coordination in evacua-tion of injured/sick

·         Coordination of the movement of mobile health teams

·         Checking of drugs and equipments most need-ed to tackle emergencies

3

·         Designation of a nodal officer

·         Arrangement of emergency transport for the affected areas for assisting in evacuation, transportation of injured, provision of emergent relief etc.

·         Stock pilling of adequate fuel for emergency operations

·         Provision transport support to departments/ agencies involved in emergency operation

4

·         Designation of a nodal officer

·         Stock pilling of equipments likely to be needed after a disaster

·         Checking of emergency tool kits

·         Ensure continuous power supply to vital installation

·         Advance Deployment of emergency teams in the areas likely to be affected by disaster

·         Restoration of power supplies

5

·         Designation of a Nodal officer

·         Assessment and arrangement of specialized equipments and manpower to conduct Search and Rescue Operation in the areas likely to be affected by disaster

·         Carry out search and rescue operations in coordination with local NGOs, trained volunteers, etc.

·         Provision of Search & Rescue assistance including locating, extricating and providing on-site medical treatment to trapped victims

6

·         Designation of a nodal officer

·         Keeping alert all the technical staff

·         Reviewing and updating of precautionary measures necessary to protect equipments from the impact of impending disasters

·         Inspection and emergency repair of roads, bridges, building structures of vital installations

·         Assembling of emergency tool kits

·         Provide technical advice and evaluation of roads, bridges and other installations to minimize the damage following disaster

7

·         Designation of a nodal officer

·         Documentation of all response activities

·         Maintaining communication with all the agencies/departments to expedite response activities

·         Coordinate all planning procedures

·         Collection and dissemin-ation of information about potential disasters to facilitate and coordinate activities of various departments/ agencies

8

·         Designation of a nodal office

·         Advance planning for stockpiling and movement of relief to the area likely to be affected by disaster

·         Identification of locations for establishing temporary shelters, free kitchens etc.

·         Coordination of activities related to temporary shelters and emergent relief distribution

9

·         Designation of a nodal officer

·         Advance assessment of food needs of the area likely to be affected

·         Resourcing suppliers

·         Identification of locations for air dropping

·         Preparation, Stockpiling and ensuring quality control of the food aid

·         Identify the needs of food in the areas, obtaining supplies and transportation of food to the areas affected by disaster

10

·         Designation of a nodal officer

·         Advance setting up of water points in the areas likely to be affected by disaster and advance planning for transportation of water

·         Stockpiling and movement of water purifiers and other emergency equipments to the area likely to be affected by a disaster

·         Provision of safe drinking water and minimizing spread epidemics in the area

11

·         Designation of a nodal officer

·         Preparation of earmarked shelters to receive evacuees

·         Movement of temporary shelter materials to the areas likely to be affected by disaster

·         Identification and preparation of areas to be used for housing evacuees and relief camps

·         Meet the shelter needs of the evacuees

12

·         Designation of a nodal officer

·         Immediate dissemination of the impending disaster through appropriate media

·         Cautioning the population likely to be affected about the do’s and don’ts about the impending disaster

·         Collection and dissemi-nation of reliable inform-ation

13

·         Designation of a nodal officer

·         Collection of information from each ESF response activities

·         Managing public queries

·         Management of the flow of information to ensure accuracy as well as easy and appropriate access

 


 

Table-C

Emergency support function

Requirements

1

Communication

¨      Assess damage and reinstall facilities

¨      Establish two-way communication at the earliest

¨      Warn people against areas that are likely to get affected

¨      Special care on security matters

 

·         VSATs, battery charged communication equipment, HAM radios, Inventory of mobile communication facilities

2

Health and sanitation

¨      Assess extent and type of injuries

¨      Special care for epidemic outbreaks

¨      Distribute chlorine and halogen tablets and ORS

¨      Supply of contamination free drinking water

¨      Provide medications for water borne diseases

¨      Special care for injured and trauma-tized people

 

·         Specialized medical team to handle orthopedic and surgery related injuries including, epidemics, preventive medicine practitioners Mobile Teams/ Units

3

Transport

¨      Provision transport for relief supplies

¨      Coordinate with other ESF for clearing of roads and other means of transport

¨      Provide appropriate transport for easy access

 

·         Inventory of transport / water way facilities in the area

4

Power

¨      Assess damage to electric poles etc.

¨      Backup power supply

¨      Prevent short circuiting and accidents

¨      Restore facilities at local and state level

¨      Salvaging

 

·         Inventory of power installations of the area, Emergency tool kit, Extra manpower and equipments i.e., Generators etc

5

Search and Rescue

¨      Aerial survey for victims

¨      Specialized sniffer dogs

¨      Collapsed structure search and rescue experts

 

·         Equipments cache

6

Public Works and Engineering

¨      Clear areas for relief camps

¨      Clear roads for easy movement of relief and transport vehicles

¨      Seal areas and buildings that are likely to cause further damage

¨      Provide temporary bridges and alternate roads

 

·         Specialized equipment for large debris

·         Specialized equipment for bridges and other temporary structures Emergency toolkit

7

Information and planning

¨      Release flood related information to all ESF

¨      Provide access to resource inventories and document all situation-reports and procedures

 

·         Information networking

Inventories

8

Relief Supplies

¨      Provide basic logistic materials required for local administration

¨      Provide other relief materials such as batteries, flash lights etc., to victims and rescue workers

¨      Compile information on the specific needs of the people and relief requirements

¨      Distribute relief by means of air dropping and boats to marooned/trapped victims

 

·         Inventory of relief supplies

·         Socio economic needs

·         Culture needs.

9

Food

¨      Provide food packs that contain dry and non-perishable food items and packaged water

 

·         Inventory of non-perishable food items and packaged water

10

Drinking water

¨      Provide clean drinking water

¨      Ration existing water supplies for even distribution

¨      Mark and warn people against contamination

¨      Isolate contaminated sources of water

 

 

·         Inventory of water sources of the area

11

Shelter

¨      Provide weather resistant shelter

¨      Place shelters in a safe area

 

·         Inventory of specific type of shelters for earthquakes/ cyclones and floods

12

Media

¨      Information on current status

 

13

Help lines

¨      Provide information on marooned victims

¨      Hospitals

¨      Receive messages of victims and forward them to relatives outside the disaster area

¨      Provide emergency phone lines

 

·         Inventory of emergency phone numbers

 


 

 

Text Box: CONSTANT and OPERATIONAL All  Year Around
Text Box: Variable according to Intensity and Need

 


 

6.3       Response Activities

6.3.1    Warning

 

Most of the disasters could be predicted and the community likely to be affected forewarned about any impending disaster through a proper warning mechanism. Floods, droughts, cyclones, heat and cold waves, pest attacks, epidemics, industrial and chemical disasters are some of the disasters for which adequate warning could be given.

At the State level following departments/ agencies are responsible to issue warning.

Type of Emergency

Agency

Floods

Irrigation Department

Adverse climatic conditions & Cyclones

IMD/ Revenue Dep’t.

Droughts

IMD/ Revenue Deptt.

Epidemics

Health Department

Pest Attacks

Agricultural Department

The warning given will be clear and unambiguous. Apart from the warning, the message to be disseminated by the local agencies will clearly state the measure the local community should take on receipt of the warning. For example, in case of a cyclone warning the messages should clearly indicate:

(i)        Whether they should stay indoors or

(ii)       Whether they should get prepared, pack or store their belongings or get ready to evacuate or

(iii)     Whether they should evacuate.

On receipt of warning, the District/block level machinery and the concerned departments at the State level will be systematically activated for response measures at the earliest:

·        Concerned officers in Revenue, Public Health, veterinary, Police, Electric, Telecom, RWSS, RD, R&B, Irrigation, PHD, PWD, Civil Supply, departments, important CBOs/ NGOs, Elected Representatives, etc. will be alerted.

·        It will be ensured that all officers remain in headquarters until the situation gets back to normal.

·        Warning to people through the Govt. field functionaries will be disseminated. This system of alert may range from alarms (fires), sirens (industrial disaster), to public announcement systems like radio, television, loud speakers, hoisting of flags and traditional systems i.e., beating of drums and bells, blowing of conch shells etc.  (Cyclones, floods).

·        Once the warning is issued, it will be followed up with subsequent warnings in order to keep the people informed of the latest situation.

·        Arrangements for generators, radios, batteries, extra vehicles, Satellite telephones to meet emergency situation will be made

·        Adequate fuel for generators and vehicles will be arranged

·        Godowns for storage of relief materials and parking places for trucks carrying relief materials will be inspected

·        Logbook for recording chronological sequence of events will be prepared

·        Availability of food and kerosene at block head quarters, storage agents and other inaccessible pockets will be checked

·        Stock pilling of relief materials/ ORS packets at strategic points will be ensured.

·        Private stockiest/ wholesalers and godowns will be directed to remain open till the situation gets back to normal

·        Availability of sand bags will be checked (for anticipated floods)

·        A rapid assessment of the medicines, bleaching powders and halogen tables will be made and if necessary, more will be requisitioned immediately

·        Start movement of medicines to hospitals, other points lacking adequate stock

·        Assessment of relief materials required will be made

·        Location of sites for operation camps will be identified

·        Adequate number of small and big vehicles will be immediately requisitioned and kept in readiness

·        Position of boats already deployed will be assessed and if necessary additional boats will be requisitioned

·        If needed all the educational institutions will be closed

·        Assessment of vaccines and fodder stock available with the veterinary department will be made

·        Lat-long book will be kept handy for identifying the probable air dropping zones advance list of villages where air dropping may be needed will be made

·        Civil society organizations will be alerted and a plan of action for working in coordination with Govt. functionaries will be drawn up.

·        Concerned departments will be directed to get ready with emergency tool kits and necessary manpower

·        Sufficient number of generators will be hired and fuel for running those will be stored

·        Regular contact with all control rooms will be maintained

·        Spare copies of block maps will be kept ready

·        After quick review of the preparations taken, emergency meeting of important officials and non-Govt. agencies will be convened and clear instructions will be given about their expected role

·        Necessary arrangements for evacuation will be made

·        All search and rescue agencies and volunteers will be alerted

·        An Incident Commander (nodal officer) will be designated

·        Movement of trains, vehicles, etc., will be stopped depending on the expected intensity of the emergency.

6.3.2    Operating Procedures for evacuation

6.3.2.1 Planning assumptions

·        Time required for evacuation will depend on the nature and intensity of the disaster.

·        If the event can be monitored, such as a cyclone & flood, the authorities would have a day or two to gear up to the task.

6.3.2.2 Factors

·        Shelter sites will be identified within close proximity ( within -5 km) of dwellings.

·        Alternate routes will be planned well in advance in case of flood or cyclone.

·        All evacuations will be ordered only by the Collector and will be reported to the Superintendent of Police prior to the evacuation. In special circumstances and in case of sudden emergency, the BDO, in consultation with the local police officer, can order the evacuation. This will become necessary in the event of breakdown of communication system.

·        For appropriate security and law and order, evacuation will be carried out with assistance from police, fire brigade, local community leaders and NGOs/CBOs working in the community.

·        Care will be taken to ensure that the evacuation routes are not blocked or submerged and always evacuate the entire family together as a unit. In view of inadequate transport or limited time, encourage community emergency evacuation in the following order:

 1.  Seriously injured and sick

 2. Children, women and physically challenged

 3.  Old

 4.  Others

6.3.2.3 Emergency evacuations

Families will be encouraged to take adequate supplies of water, food, clothing and other emergency items. People will be advised to

·        Shut off electrical switches, gas appliances,

·        Secure their homes. Close and lock their doors and windows

·        Leave early enough to avoid being trapped

·        Follow recommended evacuation routes

·        Stay away from broken / fallen power lines

·        Set the livestock free or move them to high grounds and/or earthen mounds.

·        The families will be encouraged to assemble the following items in their disaster supplies kit, which they will carry when evacuating:

·        Adequate supply of safe water in closed unbreakable containers

·        Adequate supply of non-perishable, dry ration

·        Extra clothes and rain gear

·        Blankets, plates and glasses

·        Toiletries

·        A battery powered radio, torch, lantern, and matches

·        Cash, jewellery, medicines, important documents

·        Food and prescribed medicine, if any, for infant and people needing special care

6.3.2.4 Evacuation of marooned persons

Even with all the measures taken for early warning and evacuation, there may not be adequate time or opportunity for evacuating all persons.  Some may be marooned and in such cases

Evacuation must be carried out within the shortest possible time.

The marooned persons will be transferred to the transit camps.

Emergency transport for the seriously injured by appropriate means such, as speedboats etc will be ensured.

A senior medical officer will accompany the rescue team.

Marooned persons will be provided with water, medicines, first-aid and cooked food

One of the major response functions during emergencies is provision of health, drinking water and sanitation with the Department of Health and Family Welfare being the primary agency. 

 

6.3.3    Warning System

·        Advanced technology like, remote sensing, GIS, etc, have made predictions about imminent disasters, especially for weather and climate related ones more precise and reliable.  It will be ensured that the state of the art technology will be used for predictions.

·        Increasing number of warning dissemination centres (for e.g., CWDS, Flood monitoring stations) will be located at critical points

·        Regular and improved networking amongst all communication agencies and the response agencies will be ensured

·        Warning dissemination will be taken up at the earliest in vulnerable pockets in local languages/ dialects with clear advice of what the people should do before the impending emergency- whether they should stay indoors, get ready to evacuate or evacuate.

·        Tracking and information about the increasing intensity or its deactivation will be monitored.

6.3.3.1 Role of State Govt. in L2 disaster

Once the disaster is declared, as L2 the State Government will:

·        Maintain close contact with the areas/districts likely to be affected

·        Review the preparedness measures/ arrangements

·        Identify key access routes, godowns for storage of relief

Review existing stock position of relief materials, deployment of search and rescue, medical teams evacuation arrangements in areas/districts which are likely to be affected

·        Liaison with the centre to provide special air and rail transport, if necessary

·        Review the measures taken to protect vital installations

·        Make advance arrangement to send relief materials to affected areas

·        Make advance arrangement to deploy specialized team (Medical, Search & Rescue and army)

(These activities, however, will be in support of the District initiatives and their requirements of assistance.)

6.3.3.2 No Warning

In case of no warning, the activities and inventories maintained during the L0 stage will be operational. Disasters for which warning is not possible include earthquakes, tornado, flash floods, hurricanes, dam bursts, thunder and lightning, fire chemical and industrial disasters, nuclear disasters, all accident related disasters and food poisoning.

6.3.3.3 De-Warning

In case the disaster does not occur as predicted, the Indian Meteorological Department issues a de-warning.  The de-warning by IMD will initiate the following:

·        Dissemination of De-warnings by respective districts and blocks

·        EOC will start functioning for L0 activities again.

·        The specialized teams (defense/search and rescue/medical) shall also return to L0 activities

·        Material resources will be returned/stored back

6.3.4    Response Planning

Planning of the operations will be done quickly and at regular intervals. To mobilize resources at the State level, the daily stocktaking will be taken in a meeting of the departmental secretaries under the chairmanship of the Chief Secretary.  All planning aspects will be taken care of by this committee and execution of these will be undertaken by the SRC.

Once the alert stage has been activated, within the first two hours of the disaster event the Special Relief Commissioner’s office or the Emergency Operation Centre will be responsible for holding a meeting of the Coordinating Officer of each ESF

Review of the situation and of submission of detailed reports to Government with   recommendations :

·        Ensure that the officers of concerned departments immediately inspect the affected area and take appropriate protective and restorative action within the ambit of their budgetary provisions as considered necessary

·        Review the actions taken for clearance of roads for movement of traffic, rescue of and relief to the marooned people, disposal of dead bodies and carcasses, restoration of communication, power and drinking water

·        Damage assessment and submission of preliminary and final damage reports of the circumstance as well as loss sustained

·        Arrange for reconnaissance flights and army assistance

·        Review and document the resources (manpower and material) support that has already been dispatched to the affected area

·        Address response issues and problems that require State level decisions or policy direction.

·        Take decisions on more resources and relief material that may be required.

6.3.4.1 Location of the meeting

The meeting will be held in the SRC office. The first meeting will be held within two/three hours of the event parallel to the other activities that have been initiated at the declaration of L2. The following activities will be initiated parallel to the SRC meeting:

·        Briefing of officers of the concerned Departments.

·        Departure of first assessment team.

·        Departure of first search and rescue team with army personnel, if required

·        Aerial survey of damage.

6.3.4.2 Arrival    Point

Text Box: ARRIVAL POINT AT STATE
Text Box: Information and briefing desk
·         External aid teams & experts
·         Search and rescue teams
·         Medical assistance teams
Text Box: Storage of rescue and relief equipment, other equipment and donations
Text Box: Briefing cell
Text Box: Donation Management Cell
Text Box: Point of Departure

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

This Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) will be activated at the discretion of the SRC based on the resource available and the magnitude of the particular disaster. A similar information centre is also required at the District level where all the relief and other facilities can be directed to the affected areas directly according to the needs of the incident commanders and the District EOC.


 

6.3.5    STATE DISASTER QUICK RESPONSE MECHANISM

6.3.5.1       Declaration of L2

The declaration of the L2 will be done after the event has occurred by the Special Relief Commissioner in consultation with the State Natural Calamity Committee.

Factors taken into considerations for the declaration of L2:

Parameters set by designated technical authority

·        Capacity of Districts to manage the disaster independently

The Chief Secretary will head the first assessment team and the SRC will be primarily responsible for coordination of response activities at the State level and will have the discretion to chose the members for the first assessment team. Before a delegation of the first assessment team leaves for the site the following will be done:-

·        Official declaration of  L2

·         Meeting of the State Natural Calamity Committee.

·         Arranging for all required inventories from the concerned Departments.

·         Official appointment of all nodal officers for each ESF.

·        Activation of Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) at State.

·        Appraisal of situation to the State cabinet.

·        Identify the nodal transport points for the affected Districts.

6.3.5.2 Quick Response Teams

The State, and especially the vulnerable districts, will set up well-trained teams for responding to disasters. The magnitude might be so large that medical and other response teams will be required even before any initial assessment. However, a quick assessment for further planning is also required. Therefore, the response teams can be divided into two sections:

·        Assessment Teams

·        Response Teams

6.3.5.3 Action Plan for First 24 hours

First assessment team will be constituted, which will mainly comprise of senior officers who will be required to make a first/preliminary assessment of damage. Items required for team are: 1-Survival kit, 2-Formats for First Assessment, 3-Media Release

Assessment Report will contain

·        Geographic estimate of damage area (administrative units and divisions)

·        Estimated total population affected, Worst affected areas , Areas currently inaccessible

·        Injury and fatality report,

·        Lists of damaged infrastructure, buildings, health facilities, water sanitation, crop agriculture,

·        Assessment of secondary threats

·        Resource needs for response operations

·        Priority needs (search and rescue, clothing, food items with quantity and specifications, cattle feeds and fodder, Sanitation, Health, Education, Crop/agriculture, Infrastructure).

Task at hand:

·        Assessment of the Situation,  Preparation   of report(s)  of assessment as per given, Format  Media release.

6.3.5.2.4     Base Report after First Assessment

After the first assessment team has prepared the preliminary report, the EOC and the State Natural Calamity Committee will re-assess the situation at the site for taking further action. The first assessment team report will include the following:

Extent of damage in terms of:

·        Geographical area (administrative units and divisions)

·        Expected affected population and effect on population (primary affected persons, dead, injured missing, homeless, displace, orphans, destitute, traumatised population, children under five, pregnant women, lactating mothers,

·        Districts/Areas worst affected

·        Damage to infrastructure according to each ESF 

·        Buildings (Major damaged/destruction and minor

·        Infrastructure (road damaged/destroyed, bridge, communication network, electricity network, telecom network

·        Health Facilities (Infrastructure damage, condition of equipments, staffs affected, availability of medicines/drugs, vaccination/immunisation, major health problems

·        Water Sanitation (Availability of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities, environmental sanitation, stock of disinfectants, condition of water supply system, repair status of water supply system, portable water system

·        Crop/ Agriculture (crop damage, livestock loss, health services for livestock, cattle feed/fodder availability, damage to agricultural infrastructures)

·        Food/nutrition (adequate availability of food for family, relief, PDS, Community Kitchen, requirement of baby food

·        Secondary threats (potential hazardous sites, epidemics etc.)

·        Logistic and Distributions System (Availability of storage facilities, means of transportation, availability of fuel, distribution of criteria)

·        Priority needs (needs of search and rescue, need for team/ boats/special equipments and shelter)

·        Clothing (children clothing, adult clothing, winter clothing)

·        Food items (type of food, baby food, specialised food, cattle feed and fodder)

·        Sanitation (portable water, chlorine powder and disinfectants, manpower for repair of drinking water points and disinfections of water bodies

·        Health (medical staff, drugs, IV fluids, ORS, equipment, Mobile unit, Immunization vaccine, Cold chain system0

·        Education (infrastructure both temporary and permanent, teacher kits, reading materials)

·        Crop/agriculture (need of seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, implements)

·        Equipments and manpower required for restoration of infrastructures

·        Report by the Collectors of the affected Districts

·        Operational access points

·        Areas still under high risk (cut off, after shocks)

·        Condition of the Government buildings and communication infrastructure in the affected areas/districts                           

Action to be taken within 24-48 hours

Reinforce rescue operations through dispatch of relief material and trained human resource assistance .Strengthen communication and coordination with the affected areas.

·        Accept relief and assistance from outside

·        Arrange for easy distribution of the relief / assistance

·        Convene situation-update meetings at regular intervals for close coordination and immediate relief response.Send out additional search and Rescue and medical first Response teams.


 

Response

·        For development of early warning system, monitoring of drought is essential.

·        The basic requirement for early warning system for meteorological drought is to have a long range forecast at smaller spatial and temporal scales

·        The requirement of spatial scale is at least at met. Sub-divisional level and one month in temporal scale

·        Efforts are being made to develop suitable techniques for long range forecasting corresponding to these scales

In recent years, the inadequacy of programmes based solely on structural measures has been recognized. It has been suggested that numbers attempts be made Numerous attempts have been suggested to employ non-structural loss prevention measures, as well to assist in minimizing losses through exercising control over development in disaster-prone areas. Non-structural mitigation measures typically concentrate on identifying hazard prone areas and limiting their use. Examples include land-use zoning, selection of building sites, tax incentives, insurance programmes , relocation of residents to and the establishment of a warning system.

Disaster-proof structures, such as shelters, raised platforms, emergency food, grain silos drinking water storage tanks and health facilities, can be built in high-risk areas, but easy access to such structures must be ensured. Design codes for buildings and other structures need to be constantly reviewed in the light of previous experience..

Be integrated (involve all stakeholders)

In addition to the response services, most government departments have some role to play. The disaster response role is usually a minor part of the responsibilities. However, many departments have an essential prevention responsibility. Municipalities, Gram Panchayats, Panchayat Samitis and Zilla Parishads have essential roles in disaster management. Besides the Government, Voluntary organisations such as Red Cross, Civil Defence and organizations specialised in search and rescue operations play well-defined & vital roles in disaster management. Public and Private sector organizations/undertakings are often involved when their services and resources are needed for prevention, response and recovery activities or where disasters affect their buildings, equipment, personnel, suppliers or consumers. Individual members of the community are also responsible for taking preventive, protective and restorative actions in their own and community’s best interests.

Be comprehensive (cover prevention, response and recovery)Prevention, response and recovery are all important aspects of disaster management and each should be explicitly addressed in the arrangements.

A large number of activities can be included under the general heading of disaster management. These can be clustered into the identifiable components of prevention, response and recovery. These components themselves are not mutually exclusive. There are overlaps of sub-categories. In the overlap areas between the categories there are activities that have characteristics of more than one category. For example, evacuation is a response activity, which is directly concerned with the affected people and is linked to recovery activities.


 

Chapter-VII

PARTNERSHIP WITH OTHER STAKEHOLDERS

Effective Disaster Management in Uttar Pradesh can only be achieved through partnership and networking with various organization involved in research and development work on hazard zonation disaster forecasting and development of early warning systems for natural disasters. Partnership with the following stakeholders can certainly enhance the disaster management mechanism in Uttar Pradesh.

·        Academic Institution of Govt. of Uttar Pradesh and Govt. of India

·        Scientific Institute of Govt. of Uttar Pradesh and Govt. of India

7.1                 Role and Responsibility of Academic Institutions of GoU.P. and GoI

 

S.
No.

Name of Academic Institutions

Role and Responsibility

1.

All Agricultural Universities Dept. of Agro-Meteorology.

Knowledge networking with other institutions and organizations within and outside Uttar Pradesh for drought monitoring, Soil and water conservation.

 

2.

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Allahabad,   (Central University)

Knowledge networking with other institutions and organizations within and outside Uttar Pradesh for Techniques of groundwater exploration and management.

3.

Department of Geophysics, Dept. Geology, and Dept. Geography, B.H.U.     (Central University)

As above

4.

Departments of Social Work/ Sociology & Education and Civil Engineering of all the Universities/ Technical Universities established with the territory of Uttar Pradesh* 

Sensitization, awareness of masses for disaster risk mitigations for various disasters of Uttar Pradesh.

 

Disaster Management Cell of U.P. Academy of Administration and Management can start some specific skill development process for master trainers nominated by the Departments of Social Work/Sociology,  Education &  Civil Engineering of all the Universities /Technical Universities established with the territory of Uttar Pradesh, who will in turn impart training for sensitization and awareness among masses at block and village level on various aspects of earthquake disaster mitigations.

7.2       Role and Responsibility of various Scientific Institutes of GoU.P.& GoI.

S.

No.

Name of Scientific Institute /Deptt

Central Govt./State Govt.

Role and responsibility

1.

India Meteorological Department, (IMD), Lko/Delhi

Central

Govt.

Establishment of Automatic weather Stations, Real time weather forecasting.

 

2.

Dept. of Space GoI.

Central Govt.

Establishment of Automatic Weather Stations, Drought Monitoring and Forecasting. Supply of satellite data for Natural Resources Studies.

3.

Geological Survey of India, Lucknow

Central Govt.

 Knowledge networking with other institutions and organizations within and outside Uttar Pradesh for geological and Hydrogeological Informations

4.

R.S.A.C-U.P., (Dept. of S &T)

Govt. of U.P.

Analysis of Satellite data and real time drought monitoring and forcosting, NRS ,

4.

C.S.T.-U.P. (Dept. of S&T)

Govt. of U.P.

Dissimation of information among the people of the state.

 

7.3       Need for Constitution of High Powered  Technical Committee at the State Level under the Chairmanship of Secretary/Principal Secretary Dept. Agriculture GoUP with followings as members of the Committee

1.         Director, IMD, Govt. of India, Lucknow

2.         Head of the Dept./Professor from Department of Geophysics B.H. U

3.         Head of the Dept./Professor from Dept. Geology, University of Lucknow

4.         Nodal Officer of  Dept. of Agriculture Govt. of U.P.( not below the rank of Joint Director          )

5.         Nodal Officer from Uttar Pradesh Counsil of Agri. Research, Govt. of U.P.

6.         Nodal Officer from Department of Rural Development, Govt. of  U.P.

7.         Nodal Officer from Uttar Pradesh PWD (not below the rank of Chief Engineer),

8.         Director, Remote Sensing Applications Centre, U.P., Lucknow

9.         Principal Chief Town Planner, Lucknow

10.       Chief Engineer (Planning & Research) Dept.  Irrigation. GoUP.

11.       Special invited members of this committee may be from Institutions or Organisations (Specialist in drought) based out side Uttar Pradesh. These may include the following-

12.       Professor from     N.I.H. Roorkee.

13.       Representative of IMD, Govt. of India New Delhi

14.       Representative   of “MOSDOS” SAC, Govt. of India, Ahmdabad.


 

Chapter-VIII

FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENT

In the event of disaster striking, there are two types of needs of the victims. One is related to the immediate relief and the other is in the form of reconstruction and rehabilitation of the victims. Funding for the immediate relief is short term, while reconstruction and rehabilitation require long term funding. There are sources for both. For example, National Calamity Contingency Fund provides assistance for immediate relief only and Calamity Relief Funds of various states are a source for long term funding. Similarly, voluntary donations are usually short term, while international organisations like UN agencies provide support over a period of time, sometimes extending up to 15 years. Apparently, there are governmental sources as well as non-governmental sources for both types of funding. A brief account of funds available from Central Government sources is given below-

8.1       Central Government Sources

The contribution of the Central Government in the calamity relief expenditure of the States, as evolved during the course of the Second to the Eighth Finance Commissions had included a share in the margin money,

The Ninth Finance Commission (NFC) mooted a near fundamental change in this approach, by recommending creation of a Calamity Relief Fund(CRF) for each State to which the Centre and the State were to contribute in a ratio of 75:25, and by doing away with different forms of Central assistance, requirement of the visits of the Central Team to States etc

Suggestions and views of Central Ministries on the continuance, or otherwise, of the Scheme of CRF with or without modifications in its size, ratio of contribution and related operational issues. There is also a general consensus among the States on the continuance of CRF with augmentation of the fund and some modifications

     A careful consideration of different suggestions put forward by the States shows that their main emphasis is to raise the corpus substantially and for this purpose to take into account the expenditure incurred on calamity relief under different heads of account.  However, where the average expenditure works out to be less, the allocation for the year 2000-01 has been maintained at the level of 1999-00, to ensure that no State gets less than what it was getting earlier.


 

Calamity Relief Fund during 2000-2005 (Para 9.8) (Rs. in lakhs) 

Sl.No.

STATE

2000-2001

2001-2002

2002-2003

2003-2004

2004-2005

TOTAL
2000-2005

  

     1.

   2.

    3.

    4.

    5.

6.

    7.

1.

Andhra Pradesh

19806

20796

21836

22928

24074

109440

2.

Arunachal Pradesh

  1202

  1262

  1325

  1392

1461

    6643

3.

Assam

10149

10657

11189

11749

12336

   56081

4.

Bihar

12366

12984

13633

14315

15030

  68328

5.

Goa

    124

    130

    137

    144

    151

      685

6.

Gujarat

16140

16947

17794

18684

19618

  89184

7.

Haryana

  8130

  8537

  8964

  9412

9883

  44926

8.

Himachal  Pradesh

  4349

  4566

  4794

  5034

5286

  24029

9.

Jammu & Kashmir

  3490

  3665

  3848

  4040

4242

  19285

10.

Karnataka

  7457

  7830

  8221

  8632

9064

  41204

11.

Kerala

  6724

  7061

  7414

  7784

8173

  37156

12.

Madhya Pradesh

  9010

  9461

  9934

10430

10952

  49786

13.

Maharahstra

15720

16506

17332

18198

19108

  86864

14.

Manipur

    287

    301

    316

    332

   349

    1586

15.

Meghalaya

    394

    414

    434

    456

    479

    2177

16.

Mizoram

    297

    312

    328

    344

    361

    1642

17.

Nagaland

    196

    206

    216

    227

    238

    1083

18.

Orissa

10947

11494

12069

12672

13306

  60488

19.

Punjab

12272

12885

13530

14206

14917

  67810

20.

Rajasthan

20700

21735

22822

23963

25161

114381

21.

Sikkim

    691

    725

    762

    800 

840

    3817

22.

Tamil Nadu

10264

10777

11316

11882

12476

  56714

23.

Tripura

    520

    546

    573

    602

    632

    2873

24.

Uttar Pradesh

17864

18757

19695

20680

21714

  98711

25.

West Bengal

10110

10616

11147

11704

12289

  55866

 

Total

199210

209170

219629

230610

242141

1100759

8.1.1    National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF)

Set up on the recommendation of the Eleventh Finance Commission, the manner and extent of assistance required to be provided to the states from NCCF for immediate relief and rehabilitation is decided by a High level Committee constituted by the Ministry of Home Affairs. This Committee is serviced by the Disaster Management Division of the Ministry and consists of Deputy Prime Minister, Agriculture Minister, Finance Minister and Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission. The procedure is that the states submit the memorandum for central assistance. The committee takes into account the recommendation of the central teams to assess the requirements and thereafter as per the decision, the release to the state governments are made by the Ministry of Finance.

Currently, the period of operation of this Fund is from the financial year 2000-01 till the end of the financial year 2004-05. National calamities of cyclone, drought, earthquake, fire, flood and hailstorm, considered to be of severe nature requiring expenditure by the state governments in excess of the balances available in their respective CRFs qualify for relief assistance. The corpus of the Fund is Rs. 500 crore. The assistance is only for immediate relief and rehabilitation. Expenditure on reconstruction of assets or restoration of damage is not covered under the scheme, which is to be financial through reallocation of plan funds. Any assistance provided by the Centre from this Fund is to be accompanied by imposition of the special surcharge so that it is immediately recouped.

At the state level, the committee constituted by the state government to administer the CRF is responsible for incurring the expenditure as decided by High Level Committee. The responsible of monitoring the scheme is now vested in the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.

8.1.2    Calamity Relief Fund (CRF)

This fund was created as per the recommendation of the Ninth Finance Commission. Constituted by each state, it is to be used for meeting the expenditure for providing immediate relief to the victims of cyclone, drought, earthquake, fire, flood and hailstorm. Of the total contribution, 75% is contributed by Central Government and the remaining amount comes from state governments’ own resources. This amount is contributed on annual basis. Share of Central Government is in the form of Grants-in-aid and is remitted to state government is in the form of Grants-in-aid and is remitted to state governments in two installments on 1st May and 1st November in each financial year.

There are certain conditions attached for the funds release-

·        Fund has been duly constituted by the state government as prescribed and creation is certified by the Accountant General of the State.

·        Furnishing certificate to the Ministry of Finance indicating that the amount received earlier has been credited to the fund along with the state’s share and a statement giving the up-to-date expenditure.

·        Annual Report on Natural Calamities is submitted to the Ministry of Home Affairs, which communicates the same to the Ministry of Finance.

·         The release of both the installments is made by the Ministry of Finance subjected to the above mentioned conditions being satisfied unless advised by Ministry of Home Affairs for withholding of release to any state.

8.2       State Government Sources

The primary responsibility of relief and rescue in the event of a disaster is that of the concerned state government. In view of the resource constraints of the state governments they have been provided with the additional support of funds set up at national level. However, they also make provision for funding relief. As, mentioned above, they contribute to CRF. Besides that, at the state level we find two more resources-

8.2.1    Chief Minister’s Relief Fund

Set up on the pattern of Prime Minister Relief fund, this fund becomes handy to provide immediate relief to the victims of disaster. For example, Gujarat government provided death relief to the next of kin of elders, minors, government employees and school children falling victim to the earthquake. Contributions to this fund are and can be made directly by the people.

8.2.2    State Government Fund

The concerned state government sanctions expenditure to meet relief expenditure from its resources, which include its share of various developmental and employment generation programmes. To take example again from Gujarat earthquake, cash doles for people who lost their houses, expenditure on providing household kits etc., were met from this Fund. Though this Fund is not exclusively for the benefit of disaster victims, it is an important and immediate source of finance for providing relief.

Allocation of Funds for research activities like microzonation and GIS database creation for DROUGHT Mitigation activities.  Final resources of this purpose can be pooled from the newly created Department of Earth Sciences, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Govt. of India, New Delhi. Planning Department, Govt. of UP can allocate some funds of this purpose.

Funds will  also be required for computer aided GIS based data base creation of available resources (man and material) for the northern and north eastern towns/cities and district of Uttar Pradesh

8.3       International Agencies

Government of India follows the policy of not issuing a formal appeal on its behalf, either directly or through any other agency, to attract relief. However, relief donated on a voluntary basis is accepted and acknowledged as a sign of international solidarity. Some important international agencies are mentioned below:

The UN System

The United Nations, through the organization under its aegis, coordinates international cooperation in the field of disaster management and mitigation. A disaster Management Team (UN-DMT) is convened and chaired by the UN resident coordinator in each disaster prone country. Composition or the Team depends on the types of disasters to which a country is prone and the organization which are present in that country, working towards disaster relief.

The primary purpose of UN-DMT is to ensure a prompt, effective and concerted response by the UN system at country level in the event of a disaster. It also provides support in post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction process in addition to long-term disaster mitigation measures.

8.4       Need for the creation of Department of Disaster management under Govt. of U.P.

A separate Department of Disaster Management under Govt. of U.P. and separate allocation of budget for pre and post disaster activities for various disasters would be the best option for stream lining the disaster management initiative and activities.


 

CHAPTER-IX

STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR DROUGHT

9.0       Drought – a Crisis

Generally, drought is not considered as a crisis of urgent nature but considered as a management issue.  Drought is a natural, recurring climatic feature which stems from the lack of rainfall over an extended period of time (i.e. a season or several years resulting in severe shortage of water resources).  It occurs almost in all climatic regions of the world. Drought is a normal phenomenon in arid zone areas, a common phenomenon in semi- arid zone areas and a rare to very rare phenomenon in dry humid and humid areas.  It is a natural disaster, which can be anticipated and also expected on the basis of rainfall pattern, temperature etc.  In a large country like India having many agro-climatic zones, though drought cannot be prevented totally, its impact on the community at large can be minimized

Drought is classified as Meteorological, Hydrological and Agricultural and Sociological.

Unlike the Hydrological and Agricultural droughts, the Meteorological Drought, which connotes specific rainfall reduction below -19% of normal rainfall, may not necessarily have any serious impact if the departure from normal is not significant and the rainfall is sufficient enough to sustain the soil moisture.

9.1       Agro-Climatic Zones of Uttar Pradesh

There are nine Agro-Climatic Zones in Uttar Pradesh as given below (Figure-7)

 

S.No.

Name of Zones

Districts Under Zone

1

 Bhanwar & Tarai                                                                                                                  

Saharanpur, Bijnor, Rampur, Moradabad, Barely, Pilibhit, Lakhimpur Khiri, Bahraich, Shrawasti

2

 Western Plain                                                                                                                                                                                                

Ganga Yamuna doab districts of Saharanpur, Muzafarnagar, Meerat, Gaziabad, Bulndshahar, Bagpat, Gautambudhnagar

3

Central West Plain

Bijnor, Moradabad, Rampur, Bareily,Pilibhit, Shahzahanpur,Badaun, Jotybaphulenagar

4

Western Semi Arid Zone

All districts of Agra division

5

Central Plain                                                                                                                          

All districts of Lucknow, Kanpur division & Allahabad division (except Pratapgarh).

6

Bundelkhand Zone                                        

All districts of Jhansi & Chitrakootdham divisions

7

North East Plain

Gonda, Bahraich,Basti, Deoria, Gorakhpur, idharthnagar Balrampur, Srawasti, Sant Kabirnagar

8

Eastern Plain                                                                                                                          

Barabanki,Faizabad, Sultanpur, Pratapgarh,Jaunpur, Azamgarh,Varansi,Chandauli,Mau,Ballia,Ambedakernagar,StRavidasnagar

9

Vindhyan Region                                          

Hard rock area of Mirzpur, Sonbhadra,Allahabad & Chandauli,

 

9.1.2    Rainfall Pattern Zone, Geomorphology and Hydro Geomorphology

It is interesting to note that the rainfall pattern in the state (Average annual rainfall) which more or less fallow the similar pattern as is the Hydrgeomorphology of state. There are nine rainfall zones as given below (FIG-7) :

 

S.
No.

 Name of Zones

Districts  Under   Zone

Average Annual
Rainfall ( m.m.)

1.

Bhanwar & Tarai         

Part of Saharanpur, Bijnor, Rampur,

1200- 1400

2.

North-East     Foot hill 

Srawasti,  Balrampur, Sidharthnagar, Maharajganj, Kushinagar

>1400

3.

NorthEast Bhanwar/Tarai                             

Bahraich, Srawasti,Balrampur,Gonda, Sidharthnagar,Basti,Sant Kabirnagar, Maharajganj, Kushinagar, Gorakhpur,

1200-1400

4.

Western Semi- Arid Zone

Small portion of Muzafarnagar, Bagpat, Gaziabad, Gautambudhnagar, Bulandsha-har, Aligarh, Mathura, Maha-Mayanagar, Agra, Firozabad, Mainpuri               

600-800

5.

North-East Trending Plain,

Saharanpur, Muzafarnagar, Bijnor, Mora-dabad, Rampur, Bareily, Pilibhit, Lakhi-mpur-Khiri, Hardoi, Sitapur, Bahraich, Barabanki, Lucknow, Sultanpur, Raeba-reli, Faizabad, Jaunpur, Azamgarh, Gazi-pur, Ambedakernagar, Mau, Ballia

1000-1200

6.

North-Central Plain

Saharanpur, Muzafarnagar, Meerut, Gaziabad, Jyotiba Phule Nagar, Morada-bad, Bulndshahar, Aligarh, Badaun, Etah, Farrukhabad, Kannouj, Agra, Etawah, Auraiya, Jalaun, KanpurDehat, Kanpur, Hamirpur, Banda, Very small portion of Sahuji Maharajnagar, Fatehpur, Kausha-mbhi, Pratapgarh, Sultanpur, Rae-Bareli, Unnao, Lucknow & Hardoi

800-1000

7.

Eastern Plain& Platau  

Allahabad, Bhadohi, Mirzapur,                Sonbhadra, Va ranasi & Chandauli,  

1000-1200

8.

Southern Zone                       

All dists. of Jhansi & Chitrakootdham

divisions&Southern Allahabad

>1000

9.

Bundelkhand               

Southern most part of Lalitpur

>1200

10.

Vindhyachal Region

Part of Mirzpur,& Sonbhadra            

> 1200

       

 

Further an analysis of cumlative rainfall from june to, 22-July 2009 indicates more than ten rainfall zones (Fig-8).Geomorphology and Hydrogeomorphology also indicates that there are hetrogenity in the natural conditions of the state, therefore SDMP(drought ) shall have to be prepared keeping all these natural conditions in mind. The purposed SDMP (drought) is as below:-

9.2       Crisis Management Group 

There shall be a Crisis Management Group (CMG) in the state for Drought Management as is defined in the Crisis Management Plan (National) to deal with various phases of drought at State level, a similar set up as envisaged for the review of the crisis of drought.

Cabinet Secretary/Chief Secretary Govt. of U.P., Agriculture Production   Commissioner , Principal Secretary Revenue, Relief Commissioner,  Principal Secretary/ Secretary; Agriculture, Rural Development, Irrigation, Science & Technology, Health, Animal  Husbandry, line Departments / Ministries/ offices / agencies of the Central Government, responsible for different sets  of activities connected with crisis management of drought shall be member of the State Crisis Management Group. At District level, the District Magistrate / Collector would be the head of the Crisis Management Group to deal the issue at sub-district / block / Taluk level.

9.2.1    Nodal Officers

Departments / Ministries/ offices / agencies, of the   State and Central Government, responsible for different sets of activities connected with crisis management of drought shall nominate Nodal officer for the State Crisis Management Group.                         

At District level, the District Magistrate / Collector would be the nodal officer of the drought affected district, who will be co-opted in the drought management spectrum at the time of acute crisis in their district.

9.3       State of U.P. Crisis Management Plan (CMP)

Crisis Management Plan refers to the actionable programe, which is pressed into action in the event of a crisis situation to minimize damages to life, property and environment. Being prepared to respond to a Crisis situation, helps in reducing the time taken to mobilize resources for an effective response.  It also helps us to maintain cordial relations among stakeholders, enabling us to return to normal business operations more quickly.  The goal of crisis management is to facilitate overall management of the crisis situation to minimize adverse impact on the community at large, maintaining individual and sovereign credibility, and controlling and strengthening the Government’s credibility with the public. CMP helps us to develop preventive measures in a time-framed manner and provides for continuous improvement in managing crisis.

For specific states and particular crops there are particular times in a year   when progress of rains is of special significance e.g. June & July rains in U.P. for sowing of kharif crops. The risk management plan having early warning indicators in case of drought are ambiguous, as they may or may not culminate into a full-blown drought.   In such situations the relief based management approach has to be launched to contain the impact of drought. Thus, it is to be understood that besides having a general risk management plan for handling drought with long-term and short-term approaches, we need to have a Crisis Management Plan (CMP) to deal with drought situation by the Central Government and the State. This Crisis Management Plan (CMP) is part of overall spectrum of Drought Management Plan but is restricted to the management interventions required during the time of Crisis.

The aim of the state CMP (Drought) is to help all stake holders to be more prepared and less vulnerable to drought.  It will also result in a timely and effective response by government agencies to reduce impacts during a drought crisis. The strategic activity planner and identification of agencies responsible for managing the crisis is aimed at demarcation of the duties of respective personnel in the identified activity. This plan enables the officials who are responsible to focus their efforts on emerging crisis situations, which may require a unique response.  As much as decisions taken in advance of a Crisis would make the remaining decisions are taken easily and go through the Crisis.  However, existence of a National level mechanism and a holistic and integrated drought management plan would reduce the focus of the Crisis Management Plan (CMP) towards relief and rehabilitation in the event of fully blown drought.

9.3.1    Early Warning and Forecasting of Drought

·        Long range forecasting of south west monsoon

·        Delay in onset of Southwest monsoon.

·        Long break in activity of south west monsoon.

·        Insufficient rain during the month of July.

·        Deficiency in closing figures of southwest monsoon

·        Serious depletion in level of ground water   compared to figures in normal years.

·        Indication of marked soil moisture stress, Vegetation Index.

9.3.2    Other indicators of Drought

Delay in sowing or transplanting, shortfall in the area sown/transplanted, poor germination, mortality of germinated seedling, wilted crops, excessive consumption of energy in drawing ground water, reports of the press and media are several indirect parameters of assessing drought.  Drought in the Indian region can be monitored from the progress of onset and with drawl of southwest monsoon. Weather forecasts broadly can be classified into three categories viz.

(i)      Short range forecast (validity for less than 3 days),

(ii)     Medium range forecast (validity from 3-10 days period)

(iii)    Long range forecast (validity for more than 10 days).

The  National  Centre  for  Medium Range  Weather  Forecast  in  the  department  of Earth Sciences  weather  related  information  through  its  network  of  82 Agro-met Advisory Service (AAS) units located mainly in State Agricultural Universities and ICAR institutes. The ICAR funded All India Coordinated Research Project on Agro-meteorology is operative at 22 centres in the country.  

9.4       Characteristics of 2009 Monsoon

·        The monsoon set in early (on 23rd May instead of normal 1st June) at Kerala coast and was a good start. 

·        The  ‘Aila’  Cyclone  in  the  Bay  of  Bengal  disturbed  the  normal  monsoon

·        Pattern just after its setting in and discharged the system completely.

·        On weakened  the  early  monsoon  advance  landwards  and  its  progress  towards north was tardy. 

·        Lack  of  clouds  and  rainfall,  and  clear  sky  in  the  northern  India  raised  air temperature during  the second  fortnight of June which damaged vegetables

·        And had adverse effect on milk animals, especially cross-bred cows.

·        So far no ‘Westerly System’ has set in the North India and deficit   of rainfall continues. 

·        The rainfall is patchy, scanty and lacks normal vigor in the North India   Droughts  have happened  in  the  traditionally  flood  prone  areas  of  Assam, Bihar  and  high  rainfall  areas  of  Jharkhand,  Uttar  Pradesh  and  Himachal Pradesh. Drought prone areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat etc. had relatively better rainfall.   For  the  first  time  in  the  history  of  drought  management, electricity  and diesel (energy) are in great demand of the States. The cumulative rainfall in country as well as different district of U.P. are given in (Fig-8 & 9)

9.4.1    Reviewing

The crisis recovery model based upon past experiences, on identified priorities and trigger-points with appropriate response matrix viz. contingency are given as Annexure-I

9.4.2    CRF, NCCF &Central Team  

1st  Installment  of  CRF  used to be released  to  the states on the receipt of Memorandum of Assistance  from NCCF  from  the States.  Inter-Ministerial Central Teams assess   the situation and requirement of Central Assistance, etc

It is the framework of crisis analysis aimed at identification of fundamental aspects of Crisis situation (Phases of crisis, magnitude, outcome of crisis (impact), trigger mechanism and strategic response matrix. Governments used to take decision for movement of water and fodder from surplus areas (States/Districts) to the deficit areas (States/Districts).

9.4.3    Monitoring Rainfall

In the state of Uttar Prdesh all 71 district Head Quarters have conventional rain gauge stations. Apart from the above IMD have four automatic weather stations in western U.P. But due heterogeneity in geomorphology, hydrogeomorfology and uneven rainfall. From the Observation of rainfall Pattern it is necessity to have more rain gauge stations for getting the real distribution of Rainfall data and development of water related activities accordingly. According to work done by ISRO for installation of rain gauge station in the state have resulted that Rainfall shall be monitored with close density rain gauge stations (50 Km radius).


 

 


 

                                                                                                  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                   

The behavior of the monsoon is usually erratic and uncertain in India. Kharif (summer crop) production depends on the quantum and distribution of rainfall. The behavior of monsoon is broadly classified as:

·        Normal season with normal onset, cessation and distribution of the monsoon;

·        Delayed onset of the monsoon;

·        Normal onset but early withdrawal of the monsoon;

·        Normal onset and cessation but prolonged drought period in between inter-spells dries period; Flood/excess rains; Uneven distribution of rain.


 

9.5       Actions after getting the Warning for Drought

1.         Review and Visit by Area Officers in the deficit rainfall Districts/Tehsils/Blocks of the     State.

2.         Apprising the developments to State Crisis Management Committee (SCMC)/SDMC.

3.         Action Plan for meeting out the shortage of secondary and tertiary sectors be made by the concern dept.

4.         Emergency 5-7 Deficit or No rainfall during the sowing period.  Mid-season withdrawal of monsoon.

5.         Dry spell for more than 4 weeks. Deficit rainfall in the range of -20% to -40%.Wilting of Crops due to  shortage of water and continuing heat wave  conditions.(JUL –SEP) ( -25% and the deficit continue for more than – 6 weeks & Soil moisture, GW & SW level is alarmingly low).

6.         Severe CAP(Crop) CAP (Water)CAP (Cattle Care) CAP (Health) CAP (EGP) CAP (Food & PD).

7.         Referring the issue to SCMC/SDMC for taking up with Cabinet for taking certain vital decisions/ rescheduling /fresh loan, movement of water and fodder through railways, additional allocation of food grains, establishing cattle camps, alternative employment generation programs, enhancing PDS allocations, import of food grains to meet the gap between demand and supply, checking up of  SCMP.

9.5.1    Monitoring Temperature

Daily Temperature shall be monitored in affected areas.

9.5.2    Surface water level

·         Surface water level shall be monitored weekly/fortnightly/monthly.

·        Assessment  of Drinking water availability, Irrigation water availability, Soil Moisture,

·        These can be collected from community (Annexure)/ Remote Sensing Technology./GW level data.

9.5.3    Normal Area Vs Sown area

Normal Area Vs Sown area will be estimated using Remote Sensing Technology.

·        Fodder availability

·        Food grains availability, Energy Sector requirement, Inputs and Seed availability.    From community/Dept. of AH, Food & civil supply, UPPCL, Agriculture.

9.5.4    Water Conservation measures

·        Check dams / Watersheds

·        From Depts. Of; Water & Soil development, Agriculture, Minor Irrigation, UP Jal Nigam.

9.5.5    Water User Groups 

·        Public Water Suppliers ,  Municipal Waste Discharges ,  Agriculture,

·        Industry (Infrastructure, Food processing including beverages, others (heavy   industry, Mining) Power Production (Hydroelectric) Recreation (Parks, fountains etc.).

·         Supply of above should reduce or stopped.

9.6       Potential Actions

·        Leak Repair

·        Non-Essential Water use restrictions

·         Pressure Reduction

·        Voluntary Water Conservation

·        Mandatory Water Conservation

·        Emergency Source Enhancement

·        Interconnection

·         Major User Restriction

·        Emergency Rate Structures

·        Source Blending

9.7       Activities

·        In the months of Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May

·        Rain Water Harvesting & Ground Water Recharge

(a)       Soil and Water Management Practices

(i)        Strengthen the field and contour bunds for in-situ moisture conservation.

(ii)       Seed beds to be kept ready to facilitate sowing immediately with the onset of rains.  Fields should be properly leveled for uniform water distribution within the subplot.

(iii)     Broad  bed  and  furrow,  ridge  and  furrow,  compartmental  bunding  and  contour trench  land  configuration  may  be  adopted  in  shallow  alfisols  as  moisture conservation.

(iv)      Furrow sowing of kharif crops at closer plant-to-plant distance with wider inters row spacing.

(v)       Frequent inter culture to facilitate effect of loose soil as dust mulch.

(vi)      Wherever  economically  viable, mulching  should  be  practiced  in  between  crop rows using locally available mulch material. 

(vii)    Wherever  possible  runoff  may  be  harvested  in  on  farm  ponds/  reservoirs  to make provision for protective irrigation at critical stages.

(viii)   Place major   emphasis  on  in-situ  rain water  conservation,  harvesting  of  excess runoff for re-use and ground water recharge.

Soil  and  Water  Conservation  measures  for  different  rainfall  regions  are  given below:-

·        Semi-Arid (500-1000 mm) Western U.P. Conservation Furrows Contour Farming ,Compartmental  Bunding Runoff Strips, Tied Ridges, Graded Ridging ,Mulching, Live hedges, Ridge and Furrow System Off season tillage on conserved ,soil moisture, Broad beds and furrows, Graded border Strips ,

·        On-farm reservoirs, Pond /Tank – cum- well System,Polythene-lined  rain  water  structure ,(Doba)/Jalkund. Revival of old and  abandoned  traditional water harvesting system  Dug-wells/ Dug-cum-bore wells. Ground Water recharge measures Recharge of old and abandoned wells Check dams/gully plugs Water Harvesting Structures with Spillways.

·        Efficient Conveyance System Supplemental   irrigation through cooperative, pumping system with flexible PVC pipes. Micro-Irrigation (Sprinkler & Drip) System.

·        Sub Humid (>1000mm)Eastern U.P., Field Bunds, Graded Bunds, Vegetative bunds, Level/graded terraces. Contour trenches, Chos, Inter-plot water Harvesting ,Raised bed and Sunken system, Micro-catchments / Conservation Bench Terrace ,Check dams, Seepage pits, Sub-surface water collection. Water Harvesting Structures with Spillways, Efficient Conveyance System, Micro Irrigation Systems (Sprinkler and drip) ,Measures to reduce storage losses ,Low cost small irrigation devices like Drum/ Bucket Kit, Drip Irrigation Water management/water saving techniques.

(b)       Irrigation Water Saving Practices

(i)        Reduction  of  conveyance  losses  while  irrigating  the  light  textured  soils. simple and cheap  technique  is  to  spread  a polythene  sheet  in  the  field channel before irrigating the field and then roll it back for irrigating the other field.

(ii)       Wherever  possible  the  crops  should  be  sown  on  ridge  and  irrigate  every alternate furrow on rotation.

(iii)     Conserve rainwater by increasing bund height.    In case a rainfall of about 3-5cm occurs near to irrigation date, the irrigation may be avoided.

(iv)      Lighter irrigation may be applied during initial growth stages when root grow this limited.

(v)       In  hard  rock  areas,  for  improving  well  yields,  long  and  continuous  pumping should be substituted by intermittent pumpage.

(vi)      Adopt recommended water management practices.

(vii)    Wherever feasible, adopt micro-irrigation to save water

(viii)   Promote measures for enhancing ground water recharge.          

(c)      Protection of aquatic resources for aquaculture 

9.8       Drought Reporting

·        Early Warning System (EWS) Early indicators of Droughts.

·        The following constitute ‘early warning indicators’

·        For Kharif (sowing June to August)

(i)        Delay in onset of South-West Monsoon.

(ii)       Long ‘break’ activity of South-West Monsoon.

(iii)     Insufficient rains during the month of July.

·        Forecast of Contingency Cropping     

·        Forecast of Crop Loss          

·        Forecast of Water Deficiency     

·        Forecast of Food insecurity   

·        Forecast of Cattle feed deficit     

·        Declaration of Drought

·        Estimation Unsown area   

·        Crop Loss due to drought

·        Potential Water deficit, For irrigation, For drinking

·        Fodder requirement, availability, additional demand for cattle care, Loss to AH/ Fisheries.

·        Loss to Energy Sector (fuel and hydroelectricity) 

9.9       Drought Response

·        Propagation of Forecast through Extension Services     

·        Propagation of contingency cropping   

·        Promotion of agro forestry Issue of Agro advisories    

·        Issue of General advisories CRF release alternative employment Food Security to vulnerable Sections Food grain requirement of farming community.

·        Processing of request for additional financial assistance.      

·        Water and Fodder movement.

·        Energy Sector requirement (Import /Indigenous procurement from outside the State)               

·        Cattle & animal welfare (Vet.) Cattle camp, Encouraging of community welfare organizations for mitigation efforts and monitoring of their activity

9.10     Farming System Based Natural Resources Management in Rained Areas (Towards the Second Green Revolution)

Accounting for 60 per cent of the country’s cultivated acreage, their developmental complexities, challenges and potential notwithstanding, rained areas have suffered neglect in the past in having not received differentiated technological, institutional, infrastructural and investment support. A holistic approach is, therefore, essential for management of natural resources in rained areas through simultaneously addressing conservation and development of natural resources as well as increased and sustained productivity, production and profitability, livelihood security, equity and stability of the people – the making of the Second Green Revolution.  An integrated crop-livestock-fish-biomass farming system approach to synergies natural resources conservation, development and management must become the foundation for future growth

  The farming system programe should fully utilize indigenous knowledge system and locally available inputs. Additional labour support can be allocated to group of farmers for a specific period of 4-5 years under  NREGA for purposes like common grazing, protection of plantation, critical watering of trees, vermicomposting, green manuring etc.

 A decentralized food security system should be promoted by strengthening farming systems based on drought tolerant crops like millets, pulse, oilseeds and other commodities, duly backed up by price support, procurement and inclusion in the PD S.

  An effective rural knowledge society  and ICT system involving various stakeholders – farmers, development agents and agencies, knowledge generators and distributors (universities & institutions) should be established for steering a knowledge-based NRM. Village Knowledge Centre’s (Gyan Chaupals) with extensive rural connectivity, including use of cell phones, should be established in each Gram Panchayat are Proposed Strategies and Interventions for NRM in the XI Plan.

The “business as usual” will not do. NRM, particularly through the watershed approach, needs major adjustments and shifts in the strategies and approaches. The programme should be divided into three components:

1          Comprehensive integrated development of multiple natural resources on watershed basis;

2          situation specific and need-based development of individual resources); and 

3          Integrated crop-livestock-fish-biomass farming system based management of natural resources, especially in rainfed areas (inside and outside the watershed programmes).

A differentiated and need-based approach with substantial investment in natural resource management both in irrigated and rainfed areas in watershed as well as beyond watershed programmes is called for. The following programmatic interventions are suggested separately for each component Comprehensive management of natural resources

9.11     Major Steps

1.         Delineation, codification and prioritization of sub-watersheds for the preparation of perspective plan at the State level.

2.         Separation of capacity building phase from main implementation phase.

3.         Consideration of sub-watershed as a geo-hydrological unit at Programme Implementing Agency level and revenue village as a management unit at Watershed Committee level.

4.         Gram Panchayat to play governance role while stakeholders groups (UG /SHGetc.) should carry out execution of their own works and be accountable to Gram Sabha. Panchayats should help to create durable assets in watersheds by linking the programme with NREGS.

5.         Preparation of Area specific process guidelines to build upon their strengths and experienc

6.         Integration of small size forest areas under watershed programmes through CFM in place of JFM as being successfully practiced in Andhra Pradesh.

7.         Enhancement in project duration from 5 to 10 years for adoption of comprehensive approach.

8.         Organization of Cobs into sustainable bodies as a pre-project activity through complementary funding.

9.         Groundwater exploration and exploitation in under developed areas.

9.12     Location Specific Management of Natural Resources 

The following need-based treatments, outside of watersheds, are priority actions:

1.         Reclamation of problem soils (saline, alkaline, acidic etc.); greater attention is called for acidic soils as the acidification is spreading fast.

2.         Comprehensive development of degraded lands assigned to resource poor families under land distribution programmes.

3.         Development of common land with revenue department through adequate investment.

4.         Revival of small size indigenous water harvesting structures.

5.         Investment on community bore wells to retain ground water as a common property resource.

9.13   Policy Options and Actions Towards Inclusiveness

Special attention should be paid towards inclusiveness and gender mainstreaming within the context of natural resource management.  For this purpose, the following specific steps may be taken:

1.         Introducing special package for the communities which received land through distribution of surplus land.

2.         Cultivation of fallow land for food crops through women SHGs.

3.         Increased emphasis on tribal dominated forest based economy.

4.         Resolving legal complications in treating CPR.

5.         Provision of drinking water to all households,

6.         Equitable distribution of harvested water for irrigation and other livelihoods.

7.         Provision of additional fund as seed money to women SHGs for Development of livelihoods of only resource poor families.

8.         Equitable distribution of the additional resource that has been created in the watershed, even as prior right to previously existing resources are recognized and left largely undisturbed within a positive sum game framework. 

During the X Plan no concrete steps were taken to formalize users’ rights over the developed CPR under watershed programmes, resulting in un-sustainability of investment on these resources these may be corrected At the District level, an administrative instrument of MoU may be used for formal allocation of user rights to different stakeholders.

9.14     Social Regulations against over-exploitation of groundwater should be promoted through

(i)        Advance commitment from the community about social regulations before finalization of watershed site and

(ii)       Treating ground water as a common property resource. Appropriate ‘water reform’ on the pattern of ‘land reform’, may be considered for initial testing on pilot basis. Ensuring sustainability. 

Emphasis should be placed equally on three major components:

(i)        Institution and capacity building at different levels,

(ii)       Management of natural resources and not merely development of natural resources and diversification and intensification of farming system but as an integral part of natural resource management programe.

(iii)     The NREGS, both supporting skilled and unskilled jobs, should be integrated with the watershed programmes particularly for supporting the activities in the “post-treatment” phase. The PRIs should ensure this integration at the grass-root level. Experienced NGOs should also be involved in facilitating bottom-up planning and operations.

A ladder based approach, may be adopted for carrying out comprehensive management of natural resources. Public-private participation should be strengthened for fostering business dimension through corporate sector and up scaling of successful experiences through innovative NGOs. focusing on software components i.e. community organization, capacity building, preparation of demand driven plans, process monitoring and  up scaling  of successful experiences, including those gained from projects implemented by externally aided agencies.

9.15     Common guidelines at National level for all NRM related programmes irrespective of source of funding are necessary

At present different States are at different levels with regard to management of watershed programmes and also differ in their experiences regarding organization of CBOs, particularly SHGs and their federations. The existing guideline at the National level is too broad which is not able to build upon local strengths and requirements unless suitably modified. It may thus be made mandatory to formulate State specific process guidelines (within the overall framework of National guidelines) before starting the watershed programe in a particular State. Using modern techniques, delineation and   codification along with prioritization of watersheds for all the States should be a high priority. Real time data on degraded lands using remote sensing techniques should be generated to settle the issue of variation in the extent of degraded land assessed by different organizations. The Central agencies dealing with soil survey and mapping should undertake the work, with NRSA coordinating the activity. A series of Farm Schools and Soil Testing Laboratories should be strategically located to facilitate large scale adoption of suitable technology packages.

9.16     National Rained Area Authority (NRAA)

This authority should be duly strengthened and empowered to coordinate and direct the National NRM programmes in rainfed areas, in close collaboration with the National Fisheries Development Board and other relevant bodies identified by the NCF. It should ensure   that all the activities move from project mode to programme mode, and livelihood development should be the pivotal and integral part of all watershed programmes. Reforms in the institutional mechanism at National, State and District levels are necessary towards this cause.

Institutional and administrative reforms, especially decentralization, coordination and monitoring are needed to improve the outcomes. Natural Resource Management Missions both at State and District levels, PIAs at watershed level, redesigned CBOs, and women SHGs should particularly be empowered. The Hariyali Guidelines should be changed to delineate the roles of Gram Panchayats for governance and of UGs and SHGs for implementation of works. For promoting participatory democracy, revival of Gram Sabhas as a decision making body is very crucial.

 Based on agro-ecologically and socio-economically differentiated integrated farming system approach, R&D in rainfed areas should be delineated for three settings, namely, areas receiving <500 mm rainfall, those receiving 700 to 1100 mm and forest-hilly areas with >1100 mm rainfall. Participatory research should be strengthened for identifying varieties of high value and low water requirement, cost-effective technology for water conservation and efficient use, innovative ways of improving soil health, improving, entire U.P. is covered within above limit.

The lack of regular and unbiased comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of the programmes must have contributed to the persisting weaknesses and shortcomings. Socio-economic indicators, must be dynamically updated and used for preparing action plans and participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E). Necessary trained human resources and financial support should be marked  exclusively for the purpose which must assess not only fulfillment  of physical targets but also assess the processes, products and social impacts and  suggest necessary mid-course correction(s).

9.17     Financial Implications

Enhancement of overall area under watershed programme. Planning Commission has prepared a 25 years perspective plan to develop 88.5 m ha under watershed programme in the country up to XIII Plan. The tentative target for the X and XI Plans were worked out as 15 m ha and 20 m ha, respectively.

During the X Plan the programme could be easily implemented over an additional area of 5.0 m ha. In view of this, as well as keeping in mind the urgency of development in rained areas, it is proposed to cover about 45 m ha under watershed related programmes over a period of 10 years starting from the first year of the XI Plan, but the time span for completing the comprehensive watershed treatment is 10 years.

Average cost norm: under the watershed programe during the X Plan it varied between Rs.4, 500 to Rs.12, 000 per ha depending upon the degree of slope and number of Components.

19.17.1 Improvement in fund flow mechanism 

The existing fund flow under watershed programme varies from Ministry to

Ministry. In the case of MoA schemes the   fund flows from Govt. of India to State. Governments through Macro Management mode, while in MoRD schemes it flows directly from Central Government to an autonomous organization at the District level. In fact, at District level all sources of funding should converge at one nodal agency, which must ensure smooth flow of funds to the implementers, facilitators and other stakeholders at the field level.   The fund flow through the Macro Management System has suffered a severe setback in terms of delay in release of funds as well as diversion of funds to other schemes where non-participatory approaches were adopted. Under the participatory approach in watershed programe, the people are expected to implement the programe without the involvement of contractors. Hence, it is crucial that the fund flow mechanism is improved in case of schemes of the MoA on the pattern of the mechanism with the MoRD schemes.

9.18    Initiative taken for drought management

·        From 1900 to 2002, droughts in India resulted in 2 750 430 deaths and affected some 900 million people, apart from huge financial losses. It is the creeping effect of drought over long periods and its severity that sensitized the Government of India to treat the problem from several angles—scientific, technological, economic, social and environmental. Some of the initiatives taken for drought management by the Government are:

·        Enhancement of the capabilities of long-range forecasts to climate modeling and weather forecasting;

·        In 1989, the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting started to forecast weather on a medium-term basis (3-10 days in advance);

·        Monitoring of storage position of reservoirs: 76 important reservoirs of the country having a total live storage capacity of 131.22 billion m3 are being monitored. A further 49 have also been identified for inclusion in the monitoring system, which will increase storage capacity of the monitored reservoirs to 156.69  billion m3, i.e. about 74 per cent of the total capacity of 213 billion m3 created so far;

·        Efforts are under way to improve the efficiency of the irrigation system;

·        The National Agricultural Drought Assessment and Monitoring System became operational in 1989;

·        The National Centre for Disaster Management was set up in 1995 to undertake human-resource development, research, building a database and providing information services and documentation on disaster management;

·        Many programmers to prevent/ mitigate drought in the long term;

·        Supporting research to provide solutions to drought-related problems;

·        Setting-up of a National Data Bank under the All India Coordinated Project on Agro meteorology at the Crop Research Institute for Dry Land Agriculture, Hyderabad;

·        Setting-up of a National Disaster Management Authority.

·        The new Drought Risk Management Programe under formulation aims to build on the previous Programme’s experience to reduce the vulnerabilities of communities to drought through community-based approaches and appropriate risk management and better decision-support systems at state and district levels.

9.19  Droughts of past yield lessons for a warming world

Research in areas prone to drought, both recently and in the distant past expert on how global warming and drought affect ecosystems, how these forces will affect people, and what local and regional leaders can do. The world map of drought overlaps the world map of troubled borderlands and potential political instability. The Middle East, Pakistan-India, Egypt-Sudan and Mexico face water resource challenges.

Accordingly, the range of drought-related questions Director ,Institute of the Environment (IoE) said's Did civilizations in North Africa, Mesopotamia and the Indus River Valley decline more than 4,000 years ago, in spite of advanced water management tools, because of long droughts brought on by natural climate change?

No prediction is 100% accurate anywhere in the world. This year, the department predicted normal rainfall; it later adjusted expectations to below normal, and on Monday, more than halfway into a June-September monsoon season that has been so dry that five states have declared drought, India's official weather forecaster said it expected monsoon-season rainfall to be "deficient.”IMD is developing 20-day forecasts and hopes to begin issuing them in a year or two. Such extended-range forecasts require advanced computing power that the department is only beginning to put in place.

9.20     Drought Policy  

Desirable features of drought weather codes of a  sustainable  framework are:

(i)        Reliability of  early  warning  systems  for  drought  is  a  complex phenomenon and requires up gradation. 

(ii)       Creation of data bank  for scenario of human,  livestock, water  resources, food/fodder  supplies,  natural  resources  etc.  for  major  droughts  in  the  past. Analysis  of  this  information  and  experience  should  provide  sound  basis  for future planning. 

(iii)     Billions of rupees are spent  for drought mitigation  in most of  the  years. This  expenditure  should  lead  significantly  towards  drought  adaptations, mitigation/moderation  and  reduce  vulnerability  (poverty)  in  the  future.  This may require paradigm shift in the planning and implementation process.

(iv)      Perennial component  of  vegetation  may  be  expanded  to  improve resilience or robustness. Concept of farming system approach involving social capital of humans, livestock and other subsidiary income generating activities.

(v)       Utilizing  potential  of  industrial  and  cash  crops  such  as  medicinal,  oil yielding  adapted  to  drought  conditions  to  expand  income  and  employment generating options.

9.21     Past Initiatives to Combat Drought

The  governmental strategy  generally focused on empirical  measures of employment  generation  through  relief  works,  cattle    camps,  fodder  depots, animal  healthcare,  subsidized  cattle  feed  for  the  milk  cattle,  drinking  water arrangements,  augmenting  existing  or  creation  of  new  sources,  medical  and health arrangements. At the same time, the state governments ensured effective implementation of centrally sponsored schemes like the Mid-Day Meal Scheme, Public Distribution System of food grains etc.

(i).       The  central  government  has  permanent  budgetary  arrangements  of Calamity  Relief  Fund  (CRF)  and  National  Calamity  Contingency  Funds(NCCF),  for  reducing  the  impact  and  severity  of droughts. Some  of  the  other sponsored programmes included: Rural works Programme, Drought Prone Area Programme  (DPAP), Desert Development Programme  (DDP), Food  for Work programme, Integrated Watershed Management Programmes etc. 

(ii).      Establishment of Crop-Weather Watch Group

During  1979 drought,  the Ministry  of Agriculture  set up  a watch  group consisting  of  representatives  from  the  Department  of  Agriculture,  India Meteorological  Department  (IMD),  Indian  Council  of  Agricultural  Research (ICAR),ministry of  Information  and Broadcasting and others. A  two pronged strategy  was  adopted  which  focussed  on  curative  and  preventive  measures. They were to provide weekly reports of rainfall, agricultural operations, market prices, employment and other activities during drought period. The twelve point program was created to avert Trikal (Akal, Jalkal, Tinka), which means to take care of food, water and  fodder  to avoid starvation deaths. Various components of  the  twelve-point  program  that  provided  relief  were:

(i).       Full-time  relief officers;

(ii).      Proper monitoring;

(iii)     Availability of food grains;

(iv)      Opening of fair price shops;

(v).      Curtailing activities of anti-social elements;

(vi).     Food for work program; 

(vii).   Food for nutrition;

(viii).  Contingency planning;

(ix)      Public health  safety  measures;

 (x)      Boring  wells  for  drinking  water,  and

 (xi)     Cattle camps and

 (xii)   Relief measures.

(iii)      International Efforts

UN  Convention  to  Combat  Desertification  (UNCCD)  in  countries experiencing  serious  drought  and/or  desertification  has  been  established  as  a nodal  agency  to  coordinate drought/desertification  and mitigation  strategies  in different  countries  of  the world.  The main  objective  of  this  convention  is  to combat  desertification  and  poverty  alleviation  in  countries  facing  serious drought  and/or  desertification  through  an  effective  International  Cooperation and  Partnership  Arrangements  in  the  frame  work  of  an  integrated  approach consistent with Agenda 21 of the Rio Conference. Achieving this objective will involve  long-term  integrated  strategies  that  focus  simultaneously on  improved productivity of land and water resources leading to enhanced living conditions, in  particular  at  the  community  level.


 

9.22     Drought Management Strategy

In most of the drought situations normal cropping systems and cultivation practices are not possible especially under rainfed conditions. In irrigated areas also,  additional  efforts  are  required  for  efficient  utilization  of  resources  with suitable water management  strategy  and  agronomic manipulations  in  view  of higher demand and reduced supplies. The implications of delayed monsoon are more devastating   in dry  land agriculture without ground water utilities. Under such  a  situation,  suitable  steps  are needed  for  growing  alternative  crops,  their varieties,  special  cultural  practices,  plant  protection  measures  and  efficient nutrient, soil and water management so as to contain reduction in production to the minimum possible The  short  term  strategy  to moderate  current drought  impact  and medium  or  long  term  strategy  needed  to  negate  such  calamities  in  future  are discussed below:

9.22.1  Short Term Strategy of Contingency Planning

The probable date of monsoon withdrawal  in north-west  India  is second week  of  September  and  system  is  quite weak  right  from  the  beginning.  The weathermen do not predict good rains particularly in north-west India. The fall-out of erratic and subdued monsoon rainfall  in various parts of  the country on kharif  and  rabi  production  is  imminent. The  success  of   Kharif,  pre-rabi  and rabi    planning  will  largely  depend  on  how  best  the  following  issues  are addressed:

(a)       Irrigation

Drinking water should be the first and irrigating of crops second priority  There  are  some  general  issues  cutting  across 15 regionally  differentiated  state  specific  interventions.  Irrigation  for  sowing  or transplanting of  the crops and saving of  the already sown/transplanted crops  is upper  most  consideration  of  the  contingency  measures Some of the  irrigation schemes especially of UP, Bihar, etc. are based on  run-off of  the rivers  or  barrage  based  systems  and  have  limited  scope  of  adaptations  to drought. 

(b)   Rescheduling of the irrigation rosters

Elaborate rosters are generally prepared by assuming normal rainfall and availability  of  discharge  in  the  canal  systems.    However,  during  excessive rainfall  deficit,  rescheduling  is  called  upon  to  optimize  use  of  depleted water supplies  and  high  demand.    During  field  visits  in  the  States  and  direct interaction with the farmers, it was observed that 40-50% of the canal-tails did not  receive  water  even  for  one  irrigation  whereas  other  tails  were  lucky  in having 2-3 irrigations. Similarly, within a branch, the tail-enders did not  receive  any  irrigation whereas those located at the beginning of the tail enjoyed 3-4 irrigations.  This will  also  require  proper  enforcement  of  modified  operation  system  by  the Irrigation Department so  that all  farmers of a  tail get  their share equitably and this will also result in over-all higher production. Desilting,  repairing,  renovation  and  construction  of  new  conveyance system  by  utilizing  opportunities  under NREGA,  BRGF, MPLAD  funds,  etc. may be undertaken

(c)   Ground-water Utilization

Bore wells/dug wells energized by  electricity and diesel have multiplied in recent years and following points are very  important for optimizing services of these heavily invested  utilities.

(i).       Efficiency  of  the  electric  pumps  is  higher  than  the  diesel  pumps. However, because of the subsidized or free supply of electricity, the farmers do not  care  for  the  efficiency  of  the  motors  or  pump-sets  and  look  for  cheaper  in  the market After all they will be able to irrigate more areas for a given supply of electricity. 

(ii).      Uninterrupted supply of electricity.

(iii).    Proper maintenance of the motors and pumping sets to reduce friction by way of greasing and other maintenance should be advised for efficient pumping.

(iv).     Sharp  bends  and  excessive  height  of  the  delivery  pipes  also  yield  less water.

(v).      As  per  the  existing  electricity  tariffs  and  diesel  prices  operational expenditure  on  irrigation  by  diesel  pumps  is  4-5  times  of  the  electric  pumps. 

(vi).     Ultimately, diesel pumps may be phased out by linking with RGGVY (rural electrification) scheme.

(vii).   In case of rice, continuous standing of water is required only in the initial 15-20 days so as to suppress growth of weeds

(viii).  Sprinklers for cereal crops like wheat and drip system for widely spaced crops sown in lines like sugarcane, cotton, maize etc. can give an efficiency of 80-90%.

(ix).     Harvested rainwater stored in unlined tanks and ponds should be used for pre-sowing or first irrigation to ensure uniform germination.  Storing this water for later period will result into infiltration and evaporation losses.

9.22.2  Use of Poor Quality Water

Rainwater  is  the ultimate  source of  surface and ground water  resources. Because of deficient and scanty monsoon rainfall in most parts of the country, recharging of  ground water  is  not  taking  place. Water management  issues  of current  concern,  therefore  are:  (i)  less  exploitation  of  ground  water  for irrigation,  (ii)  increased  concentration  of  salts  in  the  soil  profile  and 17  groundwater,  (iii)  increased concentration of  specific  toxic    ions  like  fluorides and nitrates in water and (iv) non-availability/less availability of drinking water for animals in natural storage structures such as ponds, lakes, tanks  etc. 

Studies  on  groundwater  resources  indicate  that  25  to  84%  of  the  poor quality waters are also being used for cropping  in several states of  the country such as AP, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, MP, Rajasthan, UP etc. and most of them  are currently under the threat of drought. Based upon climate, soil, water and  crop  factors,  the  Central  Soil  Salinity  Research  Institute,  Karnal  has standardized  water  quality  guidelines  which  must  be  kept  in  mind  while irrigating the crops using poor quality ground water in drought prone areas.

 Some  specific strategies for efficient use of poor quality water are: 

(a)       In-situ rain water conservation

Land  shaping  (if  the  soil  depth  permits),    contour  cultivation, field/contour  bunding,  tie  ridging  ,  digging  of  trenches,  ridges  and  furrow system of sowing, raised on sunken beds are important practices for conserving and managing  rain water for realizing higher  productivity.

(b)       Tanks and Farm Ponds

About  11-37 %  run-off  is  generated  even  by  the  delayed monsoon  and should be stored  in  the  farm ponds or tanks. These will recharge ground water during normal or excessive rainfall year.   Rainwater stored in self sealing or lined ponds can be used for irrigation if there is long break in the rainfall or for pre-sowing of the rabi crops to ensure proper germination.


 

(c)        Contingent Cropping

Selection of crops, cropping sequences and agronomic practices are very important.  Relatively  more  drought  tolerant,  deep  rooted  and  short  duration crops,  varieties  and  cultivars  are  available  for  different  agro-ecological  and rainfall  situations.    If  the  rain  is  excessively  delayed  or main  crop  has  failed cultivation  or  re-sowing  with  fodder  is  the  best  option.    Fodders  can  be harvested  at  any  stage  keeping  in  view  sowing  of  the  next  rabi  season  crop. Following Annexure-II, discuss the details of contingency crop planning.

(d)       Application of Fertilizers

Rainfed soils are both hungry and  thirsty but due  to  inherent  risk of  the un-irrigated  rainfed  crops,  the  farmers  are  always  reluctant  to  invest  in  basal dose  of  fertilizers.  Top dressing with fertilizer is done generally after establishing good crop stand.  Some of the cotton growers are trying application of the fertilizer-solution around germinated seedling with the help of sprayers by removing nozzles.  Application of fertilizers and even micro nutrients is very essential to optimize production of rain or irrigation water

9.23     Arrangements of Quality Fodder

Livestock is most resilient livelihood for adapting to drought and other calamities all over the world. Animals can be out migrated, fed on stored fodder or can be liquidated under most adverse conditions. To feed nearly 185 million cattle  heads  and  97 million  buffaloes  along  with  large  number  of  sheep  and goats in the prevailing drought condition seems extremely challenging. A large number  of  unproductive male  and  female  cattle  are  bound  to  suffer  badly  as farmers  will  prioritize  saving  their  productive  animals  and  all  available resources will be deployed for their feeding.

Animal camps may be organized along nearby canals like Indira Gandhi Nahar of Rajasthan having adequate drinking water. Fortunately there are large numbers of canals in most of the states afflicted by drought-2009. Farmers along the  canals may  be  persuaded  to  cultivate  fodder  crops  only  and may  even  be compensated suitably.

9.24     Livestock Strategy 

(i)        Seasonal migrations of animals from lower to higher hills or from one region to other is an age old practice or safety net.  However, there is a need for halting  large  scale migration  of  livestock  from  drought  prone  states  to  other states due  to emerging  interstate concerns or disputes especially on quarantine considerations. Migration of the animals to higher Himalayas or other hills, and from  Rajasthan  to Madhya  Pradesh  and  Uttar  Pradesh  is  an  age-old  drought escaping strategy.

(ii)       Periodic health check-up of all animals retained by the farmers and  in the cattle  camps  and  ensuring    recommended  vaccination  schedule  for  all  major 23 diseases  of  the  livestock  is  necessary.  De-worming will improve fodder and feed absorption. 

(iii)     Special care is required for productive, lactating and pregnant animals. These animals must be supplemented with additional concentrates and fodders. Most  of  such  animals  will  be  retained  by  the  farmers  and  arrangements  for fodder, feed and drinking water should be made accordingly.

9.25     Promotion of Subsidiary Income and Employment Generating   Activities

Some of the activities which can be initiated immediately are:

(i).       Extraction  of  gum  from  arid  land  trees  and  bushes  such  as  Acacia   Senegal.

(ii).      Collection of Prosodies juliflora pods and its post harvest    processing as animal feed and       human food. 

(iii).    Mushroom cultivation, bee keeping, sericulture, tasar cultivation etc. 

(iv).     Salt making from saline ground water.

(v).      Commercial raising of the nursery for trees, vegetables and annual    flowers. 

(vi).     Multiplication of root stocks as well as nursery of fruits and flowers. 

9.26     Compensatory Production for Kharif Deficit

In  order  to  compensate  for  the  loss  of  production  during  kharif  2009, advance and ticulous planning for rabi and summer crops has become crucial to  cover  up  kharif  deficit.    Improved  technology  for  rabi  including Resource Conservation Technology  for  enhancing  production and  profitability  of wheat and other  rabi  crops, promotion of winter maize  and  improved technology  for rabi/  summer  rice,  particularly  for  Boro-rice  areas  will  need  more  focussed attention. reparations for pre-rabi/ rabi and summer crops will require region specific  cropping plans including  identification of  suitable crops and varieties, supply  of  seeds  and  inputs  and  promotion  of  improved  agronomic,  soil  and water management practices.

Extra  efforts  for  intensification  of  agricultural  activities  in  normal  and surplus monsoon  areas/  States during ongoing  kharif  and  ensuing  rabi  season for  enhancing  productivity  assumes  greater  importance  to  capitalize  on  good 24 resource  base  to  compensate  for  the  kharif  production  shortfall  in  deficit monsoon hit areas of the country.  

9.26.1  Boro Rice 

Non-kharif,  Boro  and  summer  rice  has  been  cultivated  traditionally  in water  logged,  low-lying or medium  lands with  irrigation  during November  to May  in  Eastern  India.    It is a relatively long duration (six month) crop as compared to kharif season (4-5 months).  It, therefore requires more number of irrigations  and  also  being  non  rainy  season  period.    Fortunately boro rice cultivated areas have reliable ground water resources

9.26.2  Winter Maize

In Uttar Pradesh    Cultivation of maize in winter season   should be started on large scale

9.26.3  Wheat and other Rabi Crops 

  Timely sowing of wheat and expansion of zero tillage technique to cover more and more areas in the Indo-Gangetic plains of UP and Bihar for enhanced productivity, water and cost saving.  In  UP  and  Bihar,  zero  tillage  machines should  be  promoted  at  massive  scale  through providing  liberal  subsidy  for adopting  zero  tillage.  The sowing of wheat  in States  like Haryana  and Punjab should preferably be done during  25th October  to  25th  November  under  timely  sown  condition.  The  old varieties  like PBW 343 and PBW 502, which have become susceptible  to  rust diseases, should be replaced in these States with resistant varieties like DBW 17 and PBW 550 possessing high potential. The situations where harvest of paddy is delayed,   the early maturing wheat varieties  like PBW 373, WH 1021, PBW 509, DBW 16, UP 2425, Raj 3765, PBW  590  etc.  should be  sown preferably using zero tillage drill. 

9.26.4  Intensification of Rabi pulses and oil seeds

  Concerted efforts may be made in enhancing productivity of pulses in Tal areas of Bihar through better water and fertilizer management. Rice fallow areas in eastern and central India may be targeted for pulses like chickpea, lentil etc. together with moisture   conservation measures.  In  acid  soils  of  eastern  region, cultivation  of  pulses  should  be  promoted  with  application  of  lime  plus recommended  dose  of  fertilizer  for  enhancing  production  and  productivity  of pulses.

9.27     Medium and Long Term Strategy

Medium  and  long  term  strategies  should  aim  at  creating  resilience  or robustness by various mitigative measures productively. Securing Good Quality Water in Drought Prone Areas Networking of rivers, reservoirs, lakes and other water bodies existing in high rainfall areas which are prone to periodic flooding

(i).       Surface  stored water may  last  only  for  a  few  years whereas more  than 10,000  year  old  below  ground  waters  have  been  analyzed  in  Jaisalmer (Rajasthan) by radio tracer technique.

(ii).      Ground water recharge in dry areas with introduced  water,  in-situ  and  ex-situ  rainwater  harvesting  will  be  sustainable provided  its  quality  is  retained.  Field, farm or contour  bunding,  treatment  of micro-watersheds,  contour  cultivation, vegetative barriers, gully plugs etc. can go a long way for conserving rainwater. 

(iii).              Less  exploitation of ground water  by  resorting  to  low water demanding crops,  introduction  of  precision  micro-irrigation  techniques  such  as  drip  and sprinkler methods in overexploited/critical areas.

(iv).     Collection, conservation and proper storage of rainwater for domestic use and for providing life saving irrigation is quite effective.

(v).      Promotion of roof water harvesting, construction of nadis and khadins may be promoted. Periodic desilting  and  renovation  of  village  ponds,  tanks  and  other  storage  structures through  NREGA,  BRGF,  MPLAD,  IWMP  funding  provide  ample opportunities.  Strict  implementation  of  watershed  based  agricultural development  sequenced  from  ridge  to  valley  in  drought  prone  areas,  holds  a great promise. 

(vi).     Formulation  of  strict  guidelines  for  judicious  use of water  for  domestic and  industrial  purpose  in  all  drought  prone  areas. 

(vii)    Conjunctive  use  of  ground  water  by  installing  bore  wells  in  canal command area will increase overall efficiency and sustainability.  

(viii)   Recycling  of  used/waste waters  after  proper  treatment  and  reclamation for  agriculture,  human  and  animal  consumption.  The  domestic  sewage  water which is not mixed with industrial heavy metals can be directly used for raising agro-forestry,  industrial  bio-mass  and  parks

(ix)  Diversification   into less water demanding cropping systems. Vast   range

of options are available to make preferred choices.

9.28     Perennial and Non-conventional Fodder

Deep  rooted  bushes,  trees,  grasses  and  modified  plants  of  cactus  are highly  drought  tolerant  and  will  be  a  durable  adaptation  to  climate  changes. Perennial  component  of  vegetation  may  be  enhanced  in  arid  and  semi-arid regions.    Improve  natural  pasture/grazing  lands  by  in-situ  rainwater conservation,  reseeding,  inclusion  of  leguminous  component  such  as  stylo, sirato etc. and introduction of top feed fodder trees and bushes such as Prosopis.

9.29     Improved Live-stocking, Breeding and Management 

(i).       Livestock  shall  continue  to  be  the  backbone  of  livelihood  due  to  ever increasing population and shrinking per capita resources availability 

(ii).      Up gradation of indigenous livestock strictly following area specific animal breeding concept 

(iii).    Creation of drinking water bodies through introduced water in grazing areas.  It  has  been  reported  that  more  deaths  of  livestock  occur  due  to dehydration than because of non-availability of  fodder

(iv).  Establishment  of  permanent  sites  for  cattle  camps  and  fodder  depots  in drought  prone  areas.  This  is  important  because  large  scale  migration  of livestock  from,  drought  affected  areas  to  non-drought  areas  puts  pressure  on economy of those areas and subsequent problems.

(v).      Because of  shortage of  fodder and  feed,  the  animals  are  forced  to graze on non–palatable  and poisonous miscellaneous vegetation. There  is,  therefore, an urgent need of inventory of anti-quality factors in all kinds of plants growing naturally  in  drought  prone  areas.


 

9.30     Upgradation and Fine Tuning of Crops, Cropping and Farming Systems 

Up gradation of our knowledge about mixed cropping, intercropping, catch cropping, mixed farming and multi-strata cropping concepts;

(i).       promotion of agro-forestry, silvipasture, horti-pasture  and  silvi-horti-pasture  systems  etc.  through  large  pilot  scale demonstrations  in  farmer’s  participatory mode;

(ii).      agronomic manipulations such  as  zero  tillage, bed  furrow  irrigation,  fertilization,  adjusting  spacing,  soil and water conservation through mulching, use of anti-transpirants/Jal shakti etc.

 (iii).   Development of extra early maturing short duration area  specific  crop varieties  including fodder crops, perennial grasses; bushes and trees. Synergies of  forest  and  arable  land  especially  in  the  fringe  area  in  terms  of  transfer nutrients, water, organic carbon etc.

(iv).     Exploiting under-exploited and under-utilized plant resources  Large number of  trees, bushes, shrubs and grasses are naturally growing as wild plants  in one or  the other  rainfed  region of  the world

9.31     Creation   of  Alternate  Income  and  Employment  Generating   Opportunities in Drought Prone Areas.

Supplementing  by  non-farm  income  and  employment  reduces vulnerability  by  reducing  poverty  and  dependence  on  agricultural  resources sensitive  to  weather  abnormalities. Landless, asset less,  small  and  marginal farmers are also job seekers in the NREGA.  This can be realized in many ways:

(i).       Promoting  subsidiary  occupations  such  as  dairying,  mushroom cultivation,  sericulture,  tasar,  bee  keeping,  and  value  addition  of  products obtained from dry land crops such as trees, bushes, grasses etc. 

(ii).      Imparting skills and tools for diversified.

(iii).    Promoting cultivation of drought tolerant medicinal and other high value industrial crops.

(iv).     Promoting the use of unexploited/under exploited food and feed resources.

(v).      Small and marginal farmers may be employed under NREGA for creating rain water  conservation and  storage  structures  to  enhance productivity of  their limited land.

 9.32    Major Policy Issues

Feedback  from  efforts made  in  the  past  for  combating  drought  clearly indicates that those measures were mainly concentrated on providing immediate or  short  term  relief  during  the  drought  period.    The  investments  did  not contribute significantly  in mitigating/moderating drought  impact in  the current, subsequent years and  forever. This calls  for paradigm  shift  in our approach of tackling  drought  in  robust manners. Our   hypothesis  for  drought management should now be  that drought may occur  regularly  in drought prone  areas. With this hypothesis  in mind some policy decisions will be  required  to  save human and  livestock  settled  in  drought  prone  areas  from  the  frequent  vagaries  of weather. Following policy measures are suggested.

1.  Implementation of land related policies 

(i).       Efficient crop zone concept. 

(ii).      Agro-forestry  with  cloned  trees  in  Khammam  district  of  A.P. doubled  productivity  and  income  of  tribal  farmers. 

(iii).    Coservation,  up gradation  and  economic  exploitation  of perennial  vegetation  naturally occurring in drought prone areas.

(iv).     While acquiring land compensation to share croppers, actual tillers and workers engaged in the land use may be considered. 

2.         Water related policies

Declaration  of  water  as  National  Asset  and  legal  provision  for preventing its over and un-scientific exploitation for domestic, agriculture and  industrial  use.  Networking  of  rivers,  reservoirs,  basins  etc.,  water management  to  achieve  maximum  use  of  4400  million  m3 of  water received  through  rainfall  each  year.  Setting   up of the basin  authorities. Ground water regulation for sustaining productivity may be prioritized.

3.         Other Policies

1.         Implementation of fodder, feed and seed   bank concept for creation of permanent feed and fodder resources in the drought prone areas.

2.         Establishment of  seed bank  facility  in drought prone  areas. Seeds  of all annual and perennial crops, shrubs, trees and other industrial crops as  per  contingency  plan  of  each  state/region  should  be  available  in sufficient  quantity  in  these  banks.  These  seed  banks  may  be  updated periodically  since  they  may  be  used  occasionally  and  private  industry may not be interested in such a risky business.

3.         Mechanization is highly essential due to completion of farming operations within limited period. Renting or custom hiring services may be created.

4.         Value added agro-met services are called upon. 

5.         Artificial seeding of clouds for inducing rainfall may be preferred. 

 The  time  has  come  when  the  state  must  have  a  state  Drought Policy.

 The above issues must be addressed through this document on drought. 

9.33     Epilogue

(i).       Weather related calamities adversely impact livelihood and economies of large   population in the rainfed, arid and semi-arid regions 

(ii).      Droughts cause misery  to humans,  livestock, wild  life and bio-diversity, accelerate  degradation  of  natural  resources  and  put  a  heavy  burden  on  state exchequer. Excessive use of   energy,  fast depletion of ground water  resources, declining per capita resources availability, risks, and extreme distress of farmers are alarming emerging trends.

(iii).    Problems of tackling drought impacts are complex and multifaceted. Strategies   to deal with these problems therefore require

(a).      Multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary resource building  approach with  farmer  at  centre  stage.

(b).      Current  status  and  effectiveness  of  drought  mitigation  and  desertification control  strategies  and  re-orientation  required  to  make  them  effective.

(c).      Fixing  short  and  long-term  priorities  focusing  on  overall  improvement  of ecology of drought prone areas. 

(iv).   Compensatory production to utilize opportunities of good rainfall in other States/regions/districts to cover production loss in the drought affected areas. 

(v).      Several   innovative, flexible  and  decentralized  opportunities  of NREGS,

RKVY and IWMP exist to convert weaknesses into strengths 

Harmonization of   recent  technologies,  IT and e-chaupal based extension services and emerging demand of accelerated GDP growth rate is called.

State Government’s primary responsibility

The primary responsibility of managing drought (or any other natural disasters) is of the respective State Governments. The role of the Central Government is to supplement the efforts of the State Government in effective management of disasters and provide additional resources (food grains / financial assistance etc.) to combat the situation.

CMP to deal with drought situation by the Central Government and the State

Governments have to minimize its impact.  Per Capita Water availability is steadily declining due to increase in population, rapid industrialization, urbanization, cropping intensity   and declining ground water level. Problems are likely to aggravate. Depletion of Ground water and limitation of surface water imply that not all net sown area is amenable to irrigation.

 Net Result – Inevitability of Drought in Some Part or Other.

9.33     The following moisture conservation measures are suggested for effective utilization of the available water in the soil 

(i)        Development  of  ridge  and  furrow  across  the  slope  for  effective  conservation  of soil moisture as well as rainwater.

(ii)       Use of organic mulches  such as  subabul  lopping,  tree  leaves, pine needles  straw etc. to conserve the soil moisture.

(iii)     Repeated intercultural operation to keep the field weed free. 

(iv)      Wherever water  resources are available such as  lake, ponds, wells etc. protective irrigation can be provided to the crop.

(v)       Micro-irrigation system as suggested above may be adopted wherever possible for improving the water use efficiency and to cover more area.

(vi)      Nutrient input management through fertilizer application is suggested.


 

9.33.1  Soil Moisture Conservation

(i)        The dried lower leaves of the standing cane crop may be stripped and used as mulch in the inter-row spaces of  the crop.  This will conserve available soil moisture by controlling weeds and cutting down surface evaporation.

(ii)       The  intercultural  operations  may  be  undertaken  to  create  dust mulch  to break soil capillaries for checking surface moisture loss. 

9.33.2  Efficient Irrigation Management

(i)        Extensive  (light  life  saving)  irrigation  over  larger  cane  area  rather  than intensive (heavy) irritation in limited area may be practiced.

(ii)       Adopt alternate furrow irrigation to effect water saving.

(iii)     Under  limited  water  availability  conditions,  irrigations  should  be scheduled  to  cover  the  drought  susceptible  varieties  and  Raton  stands  in the  first  instance.  Irrigation  may  be phytophased  to  avoid  soil moisture stress at consecutive critical stages of crop growth stages of crop growth.

(iv)      Sprinkler  irrigation  may  be  adopted  during  period  of  less  evaporative demand to maintain optimum soil moisture regime.

9.33.3  Crop and Nutrient Management

 The crop stands (both plant and ratoon) have already been exposed to moisture stress  in  the  early  phase of  the  crop.   Therefore,   it would  be  advisable  to  adopt  the following management practices to save the crop and revive its further growth.

9.34     Drought Matter (most immediate responsibilities of various Governemt Dept.)

D/o Animal Husbandry & Dairying

·        Providing  mini-kits  under  Fodder  Development Programme

·        Monitoring the Prices of Milk on regular basis.

·        Department  is  monitoring  regularly  the  availability  of fodder  with  States.

Important Activities

1.         An  Empowered  Group  of  Ministers  (EGoM)  has to be constituted  to  review  the  situation  and  take  quick  and timely  decisions  on  policy  issues  as  well  as  on  other issues  for effective management of drought and related issues. 

2.         Weekly Meetings of IMG for ensuring adequate availability of  fertilizers  in  the areas receiving  good  rainfall  to  enhance  productivity  and production.

3.         Issue of advisories to farmers through Extension Directorate.           

4.         Secretaries of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry & Power and State Relief Commissioners.

5.         Periodical review through Video Conferencing with District Magistrates

6.         Advisory Services by Doordarshan / AIR.

7.         Team of should be sent to drought affected states. 

8.         M/o Power:   Additional   allocation of Power from Central pool.  

9.         M/o Water Resources:  Contingency Plan   for enhancing water for irrigation and restricting water for other uses.

10.       Weekly Monitoring of Rainfall and Storage in major reservoirs and Basins 

11.       Handing over the exploratory Tube wells by Central Ground Water Board to States for augmenting the water supply.

12.       Creation of new dug wells and bore wells and energizing the existing structures.

D/o Drinking Water Supply

1.         Activating Contingency  Plan  for  ensuring  availability  of drinking  water  in  rural     &  urban  areas.   

2.         Monitoring of the Drinking Water Status in rural areas and support through ARWSP.

3.         Reservoirs Position.

9.34     Drought Management Policy

In spite of all these mechanism and  the  lessons  learnt  from  the  post  independent  severe droughts of 1972, 1987 and 2002,and the recent drought of 2009 has adverse effect on Indian agriculture and the  economy. The  GDP  in  a  severe  drought  can  go  down  by  2  percent, agricultural  productions  down  by 2  percent,  agricultural GDP down by 3 to 10 percent and they all in turn impact on other sectors like power generation, employment etc. which results in  inflationary  pressure. There  is  a  need  to  critically  assess our performance, particularly with regard to inputs     “of Science and  Technology  Organizations  to  Drought  Management  and formulate mechanism  for  keeping  in  place  a Continuous  and Integrated  Drought  Management  Plan.”  

Setting up of a separate  “Institute  of Drought  Management “ for  enhancing  drought  monitoring, drought  management  and  well  focused  research  and development  efforts  for  continuous  and  integrated  drought management. Each type of drought has different implications on macro (India) and micro (district) levels and such impacts have not been fully investigated.   Since  1950,  the  definition  of  drought  followed  is  based  on percentage  departure  of  rainfall  from  annual  or  seasonal rainfall  without  considering  the  natural  variation  of  regional & local rainfall.  

Three broad themes of drought management viz ,

(1)       Policy Imperatives 

(2)       Holistic Science and Technology inputs

(3)       Integrating Social Perspectives

9.34.1  Policy Imperatives

9.34.1.1

The necessity for establishment of a Drought  Management  Centre,  which  would  encompass  all aspects  of  drought  management  viz.,  prevention, preparedness, mitigation, monitoring etc. need   for  horizontal  and  vertical integration of various aspects of drought management across various  levels  of  government  by  establishing  mutually benefiting  linkages  of  science,  communities  and administration. The monitoring mechanism  of centre  would  assess  severity  of  drought,  establish  trigger points  for  related  interventions  and  assess  impact  of conditions  on  communities  through  monitoring  health, nutrition and livelihood profiles.   

9.34.1.2 

While  listing  the existing  relief  mechanism  like  CRF,  NCCF  and  long-term existing measures  like  DPAP,  DDP  and  IWDP, droughts  still occur year  after year. One about  the  impact of  long  term programmes  like  DPAP  etc. and  the  other  about  the  objective  drought monitoring.

Nobel  laureate Dr.  Amartya  Sen,  has  said  that  the  impact  of the  Bengal  famine  in  the  late  19th  Century was  furious  not because  of  the  non-vailability  of  food  but  due  to  lack  of entitlement to food or lack of purchasing power of the affected people.    This  social  aspect  is  the  important  point  in  policy formulation  for  conditions  like  drought.

9.34.1.3

Managing a disaster various points  are  required  to be kept  in mind before  formulation of a new set up for drought management. 

9.34.1.4

We  have  to  work  out ways  and means  of  looking  at  the  long-term  interventions while planning  short  term  relief  measures.  Declaration of Drought is  another  issue. We  have  to  differentiate  between the  ordinary  and  the  extra-ordinary  drought,  because  not having a clear definition for drought of acute, very acute and ordinary case, may cause serious management problems. There  should  be  a  definite  role  for  NDMA/ other  agencies  in  relation  to  declaration  of  drought. Involvement   of local people and universities are necessary  for  integration  of  drought  related information.

9.34.1.5

It is the right time to evolve a comprehensive drought management  policy  that  dovetails  short  term measures  into long  term  ones,  has  a  sound  objective  drought  forecasting, declaration  and  mitigation  mechanism  for  actively  involving the  affected  communities  and  recognizing  their  traditional coping measures. The policy should be regularly monitored for needed   improvements   through inputs  from  holistic  studies undertaken on all aspects of drought management.     

9.34.2  Holistic Science & Technology inputs

9.34.2.1

“Holistic Science & Technology inputs for objective Drought Monitoring

In addition, forecasting.  Indian Meteorological Department and Dept. of Space are using latest  for data acquisition but State Govt. will have to take responsibility of data analysis for the State of Uttar Pradesh for micro-level studies. 

 


 

9.34.2.2

It  is  possible  to  provide  drought information that enables action to maximize the probability of  successful  crop  production  and  minimize  the  potential damage  to  established  crops  and  other  assets. To  this end,  information  should  be  provided  on  the  timing, intensity  and duration and  the  spatial  extent of  droughts. An  equally  important  element  of  drought  early  warning systems  is  the  timely  and  effective  delivery  of  this information  to  decision  makers. To  provide  effective drought  information  there  should  be  improved  collaboration  among  scientists  and  managers  to  enhance the  effectiveness  of  observation  networks,  drought monitoring,  prediction,  information  delivery  and  applied research.

9.34.2.3

Physical,   Biological  and  Social  Indicators  of  drought  and occurrence of drought in dry lands / arid zone and merits and demerits of different set of indicators. 

9.34.2.4

Drought  related  indices  from  Remote  Sensing:  NDVI,  EVI, VCI,  TVI  etc.    The merits  of  calculation  are  simple,  daily satellite  data  available,  several  sensor  wavelengths  and calculation identify biomass, crop condition, grain yield or even plant density.

9.34.2.5

The   traditional  wisdom  in  drought management is getting eroded due to over-dependence on drought relief.  The minimum data-layers for  a  DSS  on  drought  vulnerability  &  monitoring  in  Arid Areas  which  are  climate,  land  resources  and  socio-economic.   

 9.40    Approaches and Policy Statement of U.P. State Disasters Management Plan

A holistic approach has been   adopted in the preparation of the Sate Disaster Management Plan, and it  will address the multi-hazards ,the State is vulnerable to.  It takes into account, past lessons and experiences and is built on what exists at different levels, streamlining bottlenecks in systems and operational management procedures. The State Plan has also adopted the generic categorization of disasters as suggested by the HPC with specific plans to handle different disasters by various departments at the State level. 

Role of the State Government

The State Disaster Management Plan only highlights the activities of the State Government agencies and departments for Prevention, Response and Recovery for L1 and L2 disasters and the activities during L0.

The roles of the State Government as envisaged in the Plan are

·        Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation

·        Knowledge Networking and transfer, spread and adoption of improved and appropriate technology for disaster prevention, response and recovery

·        Review, modification and adoption of appropriate laws, rules, codes and other measures to increase disaster management at all levels

·        Incorporating disaster management aspects in normal developmental activities

·        Financial Matters

·        Building of Inventories

·        Initiating Community Awareness Programme

·        Training of department officials from the State Headquarters and districts, members from the community and other stakeholders through a participatory approach

·        Generating awareness through media and other means such as workshops for students, teachers and other stakeholders.

·        Proper Documentation

9.41     Other Forms Available for Use in Incident and Event Planning

As discussed earlier, the ICS has a number of forms, which can be used to document the results of the planning process, and to assist in preparing the Incident Action Plan. The contents of many of these forms will be developed by the General Staff in the planning meeting or by others after the meeting.  The Documentation Unit in the Planning Section is responsible for producing the Plan after the contents have been developed. 

(a)       Implement the Plan   

On small incidents, the Incident Commander has the full responsibility for the implementation of the Plan.  If there is no written Incident Action Plan, the IC will provide verbal instructions to subordinates.  The ICS Form 201 Briefing Form can provide a useful framework for a briefing when a written Action Plan is not required. Larger incidents will require a written action plan.  Each of the General Staff will assume responsibility for implementing their respective portions of the Plan. 

(b)       Evaluation of the Plan        

The planning process must include a way to provide for ongoing evaluation of the Plan’s effectiveness.  It is not enough to simply complete the Plan and implement it.  Three steps to accomplish evaluation are as follows:

1.         Prior to the Incident Commander approving the Plan for release, the General Staff should review the Plan’s contents to ensure that it accurately reflects the current situation.  This is done in recognition of the fact that some time may have elapsed between plan development and release.

2.         During the Operational Period, the Incident Commander, the Planning and Operations Section Chiefs should regularly assess work progress against the control operations called for in the Plan.  If deficiencies are found, improved direction or additional staffing may be required, tactical operations may need to be modified, and/or changes may need to be reflected in the planning for the next Operational Period. The Operations Section Chief may make expedient changes to tactical operations called for in the Incident Action Plan if necessary to better accomplish an objective.

9.42     Dedicated Drought Monitoring Cell  for undertaking their research work 

 Under National Agricultural  Drought  Assessment  and  Monitoring  system (NADAMS), NRAC uses satellite data for drought monitoring. Earth Observation  Systems  and  Geo-spatial  Information Technology  are being used in association  with  the  meteorological data system. NRSC  have  also developed a Drought vulnerability mapping for country as a whole with  space  and  ground  inputs. Automatic  Weather Stations  (AWS) are being established  in selected  locations in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra by NRSC in their task for drought assessment.  Improvement  in  weather  data  collection, number of vulnerable people, and number of livestock affected etc.  and a post-facto index for ensuring uniform drought relief distribution. There is a climate scale anomaly and we do not know   the  frequency of monsoon going failure.  We need good quality data.  Department   of  Science  and  Technology (Earth Sciences) GoI (DST has brought a vision document  for R&D )  on” Integrated  and  holistic  approach  to  Agro-meteorology” during  the  next  two  decades  which  is  prepared  for  a holistic  Indian  Climate  Research  Program. The  weather  stations  are  based  on convenience of  the  IMD  and not  scientifically  located. ISRO is planning to establish 500 AWS but in phases in first phase 100 AWS, are proposed in U.P.70 AWS are perposed to be establish by UPCAR, LKO .GoU.P. may demand from GoI to establish all AWS during XI Five year plan. Because as per the spacial variation of climate 500 AWS are required to cover the entire State. U.P .may provides the budget under Plan Head for Micro-Level drought Monitering and research work.

9.43     Potential of using Information and Communication Technology

Agricultural informatics Division  in  the NIC  is meeting  the  peoples’  needs  and  the  Rural  India’s  Stake-holding.  Inter-Sect oral approach   requirement   for Agricultural Informatics  & Communication,  models  of  e-Government  (i.e.  digital Government),  Geometry  of  information  flows,  needed domestic strategy for sustainable rural livelihoods, NICNET services  in  districts,  DISNIC  programme,  fusion  of technology framework, and undergoing pilot demonstration projects. An ICT framework for the proposed centre having components of data-base system, watershed based development, decision support system, development of workflow systems, low cost automatic weather stations, networking of stakeholders, ICT infrastructure at grass root level,  Enterprise  Architecture framework  Process  re-engineering    and  Monitoring  and    Evaluation  system  for effective  agricultural  monitoring  and drought  mitigation. 

Hydrological  data  can  be integrated  into  the  system  for  drought  forecast  / monitoring.  Ministry  of  Water Resources  deal  with  long  term  programmes  on  water management basically aimed at drought reduction.  Capacity in the soil is not dependent   only on  rainfall  (although  an  important  factor) but also on other factors. We should have global outlook in our  perspectives  in  so  far  as  crop  weather  outlook  and drought  related  issues  are  concerned.

Involvement of local /  district  level  partnership  at  local universities/colleges.  In  71 districts, 820  block we  can engage  8200  people  by  giving  major  role  to  State Universities/Colleges  in our Drought Monitoring System.

9.44     Karnataka Model

 Karnataka  State  Government  , Drought Monitoring Cell (a society established  in  the State under Societies Act). The efforts in networking information  through  common  and  cheap  mode  of  telephonic network and automated weather stations at Tehsil / Village level has increased the reduction in drought adverse effects. Creation  of  a  tripartite  mechanism among scientific community, policy makers and  citizen  specially drought prone society be set-up  for  risk  reduction  measures based on estimated  losses and not on estimated damages.

9.45     Objective OF drought monitoring using modern scientific tools

Integrating Social Perspectives and the Phase Classification are:

 (1)      Generally Food Secure to Chronically Food Insecure, Acute Food and Livelihood Crisis

 (2)      Humanitarian   Emergency; Famine / Humanitarian Catastrophe.

Response Analysis

This  is  the  next  step,  which  is  based  on sound situation analysis as to how a deliverable mechanism to address the need  of  drought  affected  society  could  be  framed  with  all inclusive parameters and tools. Appropriate  responses  for  the  drought  affected population  could be planned  in  time  to mitigate  the effects of the drought condition.

In  the  same  identified  blocks,  Science  and  Technology Department  would  monitor  the  physical  Meteorological conditions  as  also  the  crop  health  condition  to  suggest  the severity of the drought conditions through an  index that  takes inputs  from various  other  scientific  agencies  like  IMD,C.G.W.B., C.W.C.  and  other related State agencies.  Whereas Department of Science & Technology will provide  the diagnostic tools for looking at the physical factors affecting the area  and population   In  this  way,  a  holistic view  of  the  drought  at  the  block  (sub-district)  level    become  feasible.  The  needed  mitigating interventions  by  way  of  area  treatment  and  also  through strengthening  the  coping mechanism  of  the  community  could be monitored.

9.46     Health and Nutrition Monitoring

The  parameters  for monitoring  nutrition  status  in  desert  areas  could  be  made applicable to the drought affected areas also.

9.47     Drought Area Development Initiatives

Area   development programmes viz.  IWDP, DPAP and DDP   are aimed at   long-term mitigation of drought. Crores. Holistic assessment of the prevalence   of  drought/scarcity  condition  which  should  cover aspects like drought assessment, drought monitoring, need for relief  measures  impacts  on  human  health,  livelihood  and gender bias as well as livestock. All  drought management  aspects  should  be  inter-related  and  mutually enhancing  in  terms  of  comprehensive  drought  management policy as drought is a complex natural  phenomenon;  its  management  requires  specialized support to attend to different complexities. An   independent organization, having a mandate to holistically view all aspects of drought management, was required to be set up in the state. It could be called “U.P.Drought Management Centre” (UPDMC). This could  be  set  up  as  an  autonomous  body  under  the Department  of  S&T.

9.48     Policy Imperatives Theme

  Policy  on Drought Management  should  be  simple,  dynamic and  actionable  in  planning  right  interventions  at  different stages  of  drought  evolution  to  help  mitigate  the  impact  of drought  on  the  affected  population.  The   policy should use science and technology inputs, and community based practices to promote better coping strategies.  There   is a need   to create trigger points and an appropriate response matrix for implementing various short-term and long-term interventions.  Objectivity   should   be part of the District and State Drought Plans that would be drawn up on the model guidelines prepared by the IDMC.

Holistic Science and Technology Inputs

UPDMC  could  act  a  conduit  for  timely  availability  of rainfall  information  from  different  agencies  and  even  promote studies  to  analyze  this  data-base  with  a  view  to  understand the local climatic conditions.

District/Sub-District level climate and its variability

A technical working group shall be formed by Department of S&T with  the  representatives  from  other  Departments  /  agencies  for  finding  out  an  effective and holistic S&T approach  for drought monitoring and  forecast for facilitating feasibility of regular data exchange

9.49     Integrating Social Perspectives

 U.P. State Drought Monitoring Cell may  consider  appropriate  awards  each  for outstanding  contribution  to  individuals,  institutions  and voluntary  agencies  in  drought  management  for  their contribution  to  social  and  scientific  aspects  of  drought management.  Promotion  of  investment  in  drought  mitigation  measures may  be  encouraged  for  economic  sustainability  of  small  & marginal  farmers /businessmen,  women  and  children  and disabled  resource-less  population.  IDMC,  when  setup,  should have  linkages  with  the National  Food  Security Mission  and Krishi Vikas  Yojana Mission  by  providing  them  information  on drought situation & its management etc.

On 23rd December, 2005, the Government of India took a defining step towards holistic disaster management by piloting the enactment of the DM ACT,2005. Further Act mandates the  National Disaster Management Society (NDMA) to lay down policies and guidelines for the statutory authorities to draw their plans. In essence, the NDMA will concentrate on prevention, mitigation, preparedness, rehabilitation  and reconstruction & also to formulate appropriate policies & guidelines for effective and synergized national disaster response and relief. It will coordinate the enforcement & implementation of policies and plans. Section 23 of DM ACT, 2005 provides that there shall be a DM plan for every state.

On the basis of ICS,the disaster management plan for the droughts of Uttar Pradesh has been suggested, which incorporates various steps, the sequence of steps for a briefing by the Incident Commander to the General Staff includes:

(i)        Incident Objective(s)

(ii)       Strategy (one or more)

(iii)     Tactics

(iv)      Assignments

The ICS Form 201 provides the Incident Commander with a useful framework for preparing a briefing when no written action plan is prepared.

On larger incidents which meet the earlier criteria for having a written plan, the above material plus other supporting material will be compiled into a formal, written document called the Incident Action Plan.

The Planning Section has primary responsibility for documenting the Action Plan, and for assembly, printing, and distribution of the plan. 

Written plans will vary in their contents and size.  Listed below are the major elements of the written Incident Action Plan.        

·        Incident Objectives (ICS Form 202)

·        Organization (ICS Form 203)

·        Assignments (ICS Form 204)

·       Support Material, e.g., map, Communications, Medical, Traffic Plans, safety message, etc.


 

Chapter-X

Review and Updation of Plan

10.0   Important Dates

·        Date on which the Plan was last revised :

·        Date on which the Plan was last rehearsed :

·        Due dates for revision and rehearsal :

The above schedule, as decided should be strictly adhered to by all the districts and send timely feed back to the SRC regularly. In order to make the state DMAP effective it must be disseminated at three levels:

1.         To the central government departments, multilateral agencies (aid agencies), defense services, state level officials.

2.         To the district authorities, government departments, NGOs, other agencies and institutions within the state.

3.         To through mass media to the general public. 

The responsibility for dissemination of the plan should be vested with the Relief Commissioner. The Relief Commissioner should also involve state-level NGOs in preparing suitable public awareness material to be distributed to the public. In addition to dissemination of literature related to the state DMAP, the Relief Commissioner should ensure that disaster response drills are conducted by the district authorities and other agencies on a regular basis especially in the disaster prone areas.

10.1     Plan Evaluation

The purpose of evaluation of the state DMAP is to determine the adequacy of resources, coordination between various agencies, community participation and partnership with NGOs. The plan is updated when shortcomings are observed in organizational structures or when technological changes render it obsolete. The plan can also be updated following reports on drills or exercises carried out.

A post-incident evaluation should be done after the completion of relief and rehabilitation activities, in order to assess the nature of state intervention and support, adequacy of, the organization structure, institutional arrangements, operating procedures, monitoring mechanisms, information tools, equipment and communication systems. Impact studies on the above operations for long-term preventive and mitigation efforts          are to be undertaken. At the community level, evaluation exercises may be undertaken to assess the reactions of the community members at various stages in the disaster management cycle and to understand their perceptions about disaster response.

10.2     Plan Update

The state DMAP is a “living document” and should be updated the relief commissioner every year in consultation with the State Crisis Management Group and Technical Committee. An annual conference for SDMAP update shall be organised by relief commissioner. All concerned departments and agencies should participate and give recommendations on specific issues.

Annual Summary of Resource Inventory and Events

Government

·        Response Machinery

·        Emergency services-medical

·        Fire, police, Armed forces, Para-military, home guards, NCC, S&G,State Technical Committee

Non Government

(a)       NSS, Civil Defence, Universities, colleges, schools, Contact Addresses, Phones, PSUs, Corporate Sector,

(b)       Events, April End Updating, May Drills, Surveillance Reports, Seminars, Conferences, Training Programe

(c)   Material & Equipment (with specifications & rates)

·        Mobile Communication

·        Urban Search & Rescue

·        Road Clearing Equipment

·        Water Treatment

·        Power Generators

·        Medical Facilities

·        Basic Relief Material; Blankets, tents, utensils, food, water.


 

Chapter XI

COORDINATION AND IMPLEMENTATION

Many organizations play a very useful role in drought management and can offer paid response and a willingness to adjust to the situation prevailing on site. They offer immediately available communications within the drought affected community, technical services, manpower, and financial support to categorize organization by their operating behavior and fields of expertise in this way:

11.0     NGOs with large Resources

They have international support and can respond quickly with large amounts of supplies and services.

Registered local organization run by social workers addressing local issues related to development, agriculture, education children, women etc.

Religious Bodies

They band on their faith generally organized around this temples for aid of a community, offering capabilities for shelter and mass feeding.

Development technology related: these are usually in their own commercial research and development, but their equipment and expertise can be used in time of need in such areas as sanitation building technology etc.

Occupation Groups

Groups such as medical association provide specialized services and generate specialized resources.

Residents Association

These are important means of mobilizing the local community. They generate community participation in disaster relief as well as planning and disaster mitigation efforts.

Educational Institutions

Private and government educational institutions play a critical role in reaching large parts of the population with information about preparing for and recovering from disasters.

Interest Groups

Groups such as the Rotary Club or the Lions Club make resource contribution during disaster events.

11.1     Religion Based Organizations

A large number of NGOs are religion based and have a very committed work force.  The groups working at the community level usually get financial support from  parent organizations.  Religious beliefs and commitments make these groups very effective in rescue and relief operations.  These religious groups generally own institutes / places of worship that are “Pucca” buildings, usually slightly away from the core habitation which can be used as shelters during flood and cyclone.  These groups also often have necessary infrastructure and resources for mass feeding.

·        Creation of contingent funds for disaster management and generate resource from other agencies, patrons and individuals.

·        Organizing congregations and other cultural functions and in raising community consciousness on disaster preparedness.

·        Organizing awareness and skill development trainings on various aspects of disaster management

11.2     Bilateral Organizations

Bilateral agencies play a major roles role in disaster management and work through government as well as NGOs and other partner agencies. They provide resources for preparedness, research, networking and institution development, relief, reconstruction and rehabilitation. They can assist in making suggestions for possible changes in policies by sharing of disaster management applications in other parts of the world. In addition, they can provide technical expertise and give support by mobilizing advanced rescue and evacuation teams from other countries during time of extreme emergencies. These organizations carry out responsibilities in coordination with the Government of the affected country, other donor Governments, international organizations, UN agencies and NGOs.

11.3     Corporate Bodies

So far the role of corporate sector has been limited to relief and reconstruction activities following emergencies.  Some business centers and corporate houses have special cells to take up relief activities. After super cyclone of Orissa many PSUs and corporate houses like NALCO, ONGC, SAIL, and TATA constructed dwelling houses for the affected families and the various business houses which are having industrial units power plants  are engaged in other business activities with in the territory of Uttar Pradesh shall be encouraged to become an important stakeholder in the Disaster Management.

·        The corporate sector can play an active role in preparedness and planning through raising community awareness in their projects areas  on various aspects of disaster preparedness

·        Providing specialized equipments (earthmoving equipments, boats, etc. for disaster response

·        Mobilization and creation of contingency fund for relief and recovery activities

·        Provision of technical expertise to manage disasters (especially industrial accidents, fire etc.)

11.4     UN Agencies

The UN resolution affirms that the humanitarian assistance must be provided in accordance with the principles of humanity, neutrality and impartiality. The UN has a central and unique role through the organizations under its aegis, coordinate, international co-operation in the field of disaster management and mitigation.  Even though disaster management and mitigation rests on the National Government, the UN agencies are responsible for providing advice and assistance to the government and responsible to mobilize and provide technical and material assistance according to its mandate and resources.

·        A mandate issued by the UN general assembly ensued in setting of United Nations Disaster Management Teams (UN-DMT) to be convened and chaired by UN resident coordinators in each disaster prone nation. Essentially the composition of UN-DMT is determined by taking into account the types of disasters to which a country is prone to and capability of the organizations present in the country working in the area of disaster mitigation and relief. The primary purpose of UN-DMT is to ensure a prompt effective and concerted response in the event of a disaster

·        Coordinate UN assistance to the Government in post disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction process

·        Undertake long-term disaster mitigation measures

11.4.1  UNICEF (United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund)

UNICEF, assists in child health, sanitation and nutrition especially in emergency situations and has done  creditable work at the time of many disaster in India and elsewhere in the world.

·        Provision of emergency relief to the affected communities

·        Immunization

·        Restoration of health infrastructures

·        Supply of educational and other infrastructures to the affected schools

·        Restoration and augmentation of sanitation and drinking water facilities

·        Establishment of child labour prevention school

·        Supporting OSDMA and NGOs in disaster mitigation and preparedness activities

·        Supply of boats to the State Government

The key areas of UNICEF’s involvement in disaster mitigation will be

·        Post disaster situation and needs assessment with the help of NGOs or Govt. machinery.

·        Promoting & guiding disease surveillance

·        Training support for medical personnel for control of epidemic

·        Provision of relief support to the affected community as per its mandate.

·        Supply of emergent food aid relief, medicine and study materials for children of the affected communities.

·        Allocate/generate financial assistance for restoration and rehabilitation activities in the affected areas.

·        Restoration of drinking water and sanitation facilities in post disaster period.

·        Incorporate disaster preparedness aspects in its ongoing programs.

·        Special programmes for child and mother health

11.4.2  UNDP (United Nations Development Programme)

UNDP is mandated to promote incorporation of disaster mitigation in development planning and provide financial support and technical assistance for different facets of disaster management.  Assistance is also provided in the planning and implementation of post disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction and incorporation of risk reduction techniques in the affected areas.

Following the Super-cyclone in 1999, UNDP took a lead in coordinating and facilitating relief and rehabilitation efforts of various agencies.

UNDP plays the role of convener of the UN’s DMT which is an inter-agency working group and works on disaster management in collaboration with Govt. and NGOs.

The activities of UNDP in the State are

·        Supporting the State and district administration in distribution of relief

·        Co-ordination of NGO activities in the affected areas

·        Promotion of alternative housing techniques in the affected areas

·        Strengthening of disease surveillance

·        Supporting Disaster Preparedness initiatives in the State through organizing workshops, training programmes for various stake holders

·        Supporting UP S D M A in disaster mitigation aspects

·        Initiating community based disaster preparedness programme in the State

·        Initiation of sustainable livelihood programmes, agro service centers

·        Provision on agricultural inputs immediately after emergencies

·        Provision of tents, family relief kits

UNDP can play the following roles in a disaster management

·        Incorporation of disaster mitigation in development planning.

·        Support and get involved in planning and implementation of relief and rehabilitation activities of the Govt.

·        Propagate disaster preparedness in community level through NGOs, CBOs, PRIs and Govt. machinery.

·        Play a vital role in preparing disaster management plans at state, district, block and community levels.

·        Play a vital role in designing early warning systems.

11.4.3 WFP (World Food Programme)   

World Food Program provides targeted food aid to vulnerable community for humanitarian relief and supports rehabilitation, reconstruction and risk reducing development programmes. WFP in collaboration with State Govt. provides food support under the ICDS scheme. Immediately after the Super Cyclone 1999, WFP supported food for work programmes in the state in collaboration with NGOs and Government as a part of its relief, reconstruction and rehabilitation activities. WFP has extended its support for increasing the food security aspects of disaster victims, especially in the drought-affected Western districts of the State.

11.4.4  FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation)

FAO provides technical advice in reducing vulnerability and helps in the rehabilitation of agriculture, livestock, fisheries and local food production. It also monitors food production and forecasts any requirements of exceptional food assistance.  

11.4.5  WHO (World Health Organization)

WHO provides advice and assistance in various aspects of preventive and curative health care including preparedness of health services for rapid disaster response. WHO played a major role in initiating and strengthening the disease surveillance system in the cyclone affected Districts of Orissa shortly after the Super Cyclone.

Integration of the Media into Disaster Mitigation Activities and during disasters

1. (a).  The second step in building links with the news organizations is to more effectively link the media into an intensified effort in disaster mitigation.

(b).      Risk Assessment

Avoidance Measures

·        Early warning and evacuation

·        Public awareness and education

·        Organization for self-help and effective response to risk.

2.         The media are seen as relayers of official information and measures, which the citizens are expected to undertake immediately and at the same time are conduits for relaying information through inter-governmental structures and channels, to bring the citizens, concerns to official attention.

3.         In the event of a disaster, media has a responsibility of reporting the same on a day-to-day basis. Such reporting can contribute to :

·        Bringing true stories of disaster to public.

·        Simulating public response to needs and sufferings caused by disaster
Creating tremendous pressure on agencies and government to get involved

·        Creating tremendous pressure on agencies and government to get involved.

·        Injecting efficiency by reducing response time.

·        Motivating public and generating disaster assistance and resources.

4.      However, care should be taken to safeguard the authenticity of the information and the credibility of the media. This can be done by :

·        Avoiding reinforcing stereotypes that the people carry about disaster “victims”

·        Promoting sensitivity as against sensationalism

·        Highlighting both the positive and the negative aspects of disaster  management.

·        Cross-checking information from the disaster site as well as the official sources.

5.         During disasters, it is important to organize regular press meetings and issue press releases. The importance of the efforts of various non-governmental agencies engaged in relief operations, their specific problems should be and through such briefings. This will ensure highlighted transparency in all operations, concern, and commitments to those affected.

6.         A rational approach to media involvement in disaster management would depend that the media is familiari